Indian Journal Of Animal Health

Published by

West Bengal Veterinary Association
NAAS SCORE - 4.08

Last Issue
VOL. 56, NO.1 . JUNE, 2017
 

Review Article



USE  OF  CONDENSED  TANNINS  TO CONTROL GASTROINTESTINAL  NEMATODES  AND  IMPROVE SMALL RUMINANT  PERFORMANCE


............................................................ 1 - 10


S. UNIYAL*, J. K. SAHOO AND ASHWIN K.


Division of Animal Nutrition

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

Izaatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh-234 122



Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections are generally wide spread in pastoral grazing systems and due to indiscriminate use of anthelmintics many GIN species have developed resistance to most of the commonly use anthelmintic drugs. Use of phyto-chemicals (condensed tannins; CT) is becoming popular and in some cases it may offer better control than anthelmintic. Dietary supplementation of CT through feeding of tropical tanniferous tree leaves/ leaf meal mixture (LMM) at low to moderate level (1-5% of DMI) was found to be effective against different developmental stages (eggs, larvae and adult) of GIN, CT supplementation was also improved the nutrient utilization, productive performance, antioxidant status and immunological (both cell mediated and humoral immune) response in small ruminants. Therefore, CT supplementation in diets of small ruminants may act as natural dewormer without having any residual effect in animal products which is the need of our consumers.

 

Key words: Anthelmintic drugs, Cell mediated and humoral immune response, Condensed tannins, Gastrointestinal nematode

 
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Review Article



PISCICIDES  IN  TROPICAL  FRESHWATER  AQUACULTURE –  AN  OVERVIEW


............................................................... 11 - 30


S. K. DAS*, C. SARKHEL1, A. MANDAL2 AND R. DINDA

 

Department of Aquaculture

Faculty of Fishery Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Chakgaria, Kolkata 700 094


Application of piscicides of varying nature and compositions are widespread as part of the prestocking management of nursery ponds in tropical carp culture practices. The effectiveness, economic aspect as well as environmental consequences are widely discussed.  Chemical piscicides though are very fast effective; there is an inherent risk of residual and colateral impact upon the nutrient dynamics of the pond ecology. Application of dimethyl = 2 : 2 dichlorovenyl phosphate (DDVP) results in N limitation, whereas, application of urea [CO(NH2)2] in combination with bleaching powder [Ca(OCl)Cl] favours P limitation.  Piscicides of plant origin are safe, economical, imparts short term negative impact upon the biogeochemical cycling microbs unlike that of chemical compounds. Herbal piscicides upon decomposition favours N : P ratio to be in the desirable range of 4 : 1- 8 : 1.  Understanding on the subject is limited in term of pisicicidal impact upon the microbial as well as planktonic profile of the pond culture system


Key words: Biogeochemical cycling, N: P ratio, Piscicides, Residual impact

 
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Research Article



EFFECT OF  FOLLICULAR  FLUID  SUPPLEMENTATION  ON IN VITRO MATURATION  AND  DEVELOPMENTAL  RATE OF BUFFALO  OOCYTES


............................................................ 31 - 36


S. SATHESHKUMAR , M. SHALINI PRIYA, K. BRINDHA, S. SAKTHIVEL AND K. KUMANAN


Department of Animal Biotechnology

Madras Veterinary College

Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Chennai – 600 007, Tamilnadu, India

 

The effect of supplementation of follicular fluid (FF) at 5.0% concentration in in vitro maturation (IVM) media on in vitro production of buffalo embryos was studied. Oocytes were aspirated from slaughter house derived ovaries and graded. Cultutarable quality oocytes were randomly cultured in IVM media with FF (n = 334) and without FF (n = 228) and subjected to maturation. The maturation rate, cleavage rate and embryo developmental rate was recorded in both the groups. The maturation, cleavage, morula and blastocyst rates  (78.2 ± 1.8, 41.2 ± 1.3, 15.2 ± 0.7 and 7.7 ± 0.9 % respectively) were significantly (P < 0.01)  higher when oocytes were matured in media supplemeted with FF than  controls (55.3 ± 1.9, 28.7 ± 1.5, 6.7 ± 0.8 and 2.2 ± 0.8 % respectively). Thus, it could be concluded that supplementation of FF (5.0 %) to IVM media would benefit the maturation, cleavage and embryo development in buffalo IVF programme.


Key words: Bubaline oocytes, Embryo development, IVM with or without follicular fluid

 
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Research Article




DETECTION  OF  CO-INFECTION  BY  BABESIA  CANIS AND EHRLICHIA  CANIS IN  A  SUBCLINICALLY  INFECTED  DOG


.......................................................... 37 - 42


M. KALAIVANAN, S. SARAVANAN* AND K. M. PALANIVEL


Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine

Veterinary College and Research Institute

Namakkal-637 002, Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

 

A 3 year old dog presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC), Namakkal, Tamil Nadu with the history of inappetance and dullness, manifested pyrexia and lymphnode enlargement. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear revealed stray Babesia canis, whereas, the blood sample when subjected to Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), positivity could be detected for both Ehrlichia canis and B. canis. Haematological values were found to be within range, however, biochemical analysis revealed slightly elevated Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The dog was successfully treated with diminazene aceturate, oxytetracycline and supportive drugs.


Key words: B.canis, Biochemical changes, Concomitant infection, E.canis, Polymerase chain reaction

 
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Research Article




MILKING  AND  MARKETING  PRACTICES  OF  BUFFALO  FARMERS  IN  KARNATAKA


.......................................................... 43 - 52 

 

R. VRANDA, K. SATYANARAYAN, V. JAGADEESWARY AND J. SHILPA SHREE


Department  of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education

Veterinary College

Karnataka Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Bangalore – 560024, Karnataka

 

Dairy farming is one of the important activities among the rural farmers. It provides sustainable income and reduces unemployment to a large number of the rural poor. The study on milking and marketing practices of buffalo farmers was purposively conducted in Bidar district of Karnataka with a total sample of 180 buffalo farmers selected randomly. The study revealed that majority of the farmers carried out hand milking using full hand milking method inside the shed after cleaning the shed, hands, udder and milking utensils but they did not discard first few strippings/stripping of milk from each quarter. None of the farmers practiced dry hand milking and wiping of udder and teat after milking. All the farmers carried out milking twice in a day, at regular time interval of day and the milking was carried out for more than 5 minutes in one buffalo. Majority of the farmers were not changing milkers from time to time and offered concentrates during milking in the absence of calf. Most (49.45%) of the farmers did not practice any method for drying their buffaloes and the dry period allowed was less than 3 months (82.77%). The milking record was not maintained by majority (97.73%) of the farmers. Majority (78.79%) of the farmers retained milk for home consumption and rest sold at the market, in liquid state (98.88%) to milk co-operative society. Majority of the farmers used dung and urine in the form of manure and it was sold at the rate of Rs. 1,100 - 1,500/tractor. Low milk production was the major (61.67%) reason for disposal of buffaloes from the farm. High cost of milking machine was expressed as a major milking constraint (18.88%) and low price of liquid milk (63.88%) was expressed as their major marketing constraint by farmers. These findings indicated a considerable gap between recommended milking and marketing practices and the existing milking and marketing practices. The results of the study will help in understanding the different milking and marketing practices adopted by farmers and also to educate them the strengths and weaknesses in the milking and marketing management and to formulate suitable scientific milking and marketing regime for the animals.


Key words: Buffaloes, Constraints, Management, Marketing, Milking

 
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Research Article




COMPARATIVE  BIOCHEMICAL  PROFILE  OF  BLOOD  SERUM AND  ESTRUAL  MUCUS  IN  NORMAL  AND  REPEAT  BREEDING KANKREJ  COW


............................................................. 53 - 58


L. C. MODI, B. N. SUTHAR, V. K. SHARMA, H. C. NAKHASHI, H. H. PANCHASARA AND F. MODI

 

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Navsari Agricultural University

Navsari, Gujarat- 396 450


The study was carried out on twenty normal and ten repeat breeder female Kankrej cows. The blood serum as well as the estrual mucus discharge was collected to estimate the inorganic phosphorus, total cholesterol, total proteins and glucose levels during estrus period.  The serum levels of inorganic phosphorus and total protein were significantly (p<0.01) higher in normal breeder, whereas serum total cholesterol and glucose were found significantly (p<0.01) higher in repeat breeder Kankrej cows. All the biochemical parameters studied for estrual mucus were significantly higher in normal breeder as compared to repeat breeder Kankrej cows.


Key words: Biochemical, Estrual mucus, Kankrej cow, Repeat breeder

 
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Research Article



PROXIMATE  COMPOSITIONS  OF  SOME  COMMON FRUIT  SEEDS  AVAILABLE  IN  WEST  BENGAL


............................................................. 59 - 64

 

S. MUKHERJEE, A. BANDYOPADHAYAY, S. P. SENGUPTA AND B. ROY


Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health

Sector-III, Bidhan Nagar (Salt Lake)

Kolkata -700 098, West Bengal


The present study was carried out to estimate the proximate compositions, fibre fractions acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and calcium content of guava, tamarind, watermelon, orange, papaya and date seed powders. The results showed that the seed powders under study can be considered as important new sources of crude fibre, crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free extract (NFE). This analytical study showed that these seed powders contained good amount of calcium and are insoluble fibre. Among these fruit seeds both guava and date seeds are rich in crude fibre, both tamarind and orange seeds are rich in nitrogen free extract and watermelon, orange and papaya seed powders contain high amount of ether extract.


Key words: ADF, Calcium, Fruit seeds, NDF, Nutrient dense, Proximate compositions

 
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Research Article




EFFECT  OF REFRIGERATION  ON  QUALITY  AND STABILITY  OF  FRESH FISH  AND  POULTRY  MUSCLES

............................................................ 65 - 76


O. BISWAS, N.A.TALWAR, D. BHATTACHARYA1, S. K. DAS AND S. CHAUDHARY

 

Department of Fisheries Engineering

Faculty of Fisheries Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata­700 037


The present study investigated the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of poultry and fish (Wallago attu) muscle in refrigerated storage (4°±1°C). pH, Thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) value, Peroxide value (PV), Free fatty acid (FFA) value, Tyrosine value (TV), and microbiological study viz. Total plate count (TPC), Total psychrophillic count (TPSC), yeast & mould counts and coliform counts were estimated. Sensory analysis of cooked poultry meat curry and fish curry were done by 8 point hedonic scale by semi- trained sensory panelists. pH, TBARS values, PV, FFA values, TV, TPC and TPSC values were increased significantly (p<0.05) throughout the storage. Yeast and mould counts and coliform counts were not detected up to 3rd day of storage in fish meat and 7th day of storage in poultry meat. The study concluded that both the meats were accepted up to 7 days as per sensory analysis  and the upper limit of safety optima was up to 10th day of refrigerated storage period as per chemical and microbiological quality basis.

 

Key words: Microbiological safety, Refrigeration preservation, Sensory analysis, Wallago attu

 
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Research Article



SEROPREVALENCE  OF  SALMONELLA  IN  BREEDER FLOCKS  IN  DIFFERENT  PARTS  OF  INDIA


............................................................ 77 - 84


S. BAKSI, N. RAO, V. JOGANI, D. PATEL AND D. RAVAL

 

Hester Biosciences Limited

Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Pin- 380 006


Fowl typhoid is a contagious and septicaemic disease of poultry. It affects breeder and broiler chickens and is highly prevalent in most of the countries. India has a significant role in poultry industry and fowl typhoid affects majorly egg production and chicken quality. Several states of India were considered for the seroprevalence study after collection of blood samples from commercial breeder flocks. Rapid serum agglutination test (RST) was performed to detect presence of antibodies. Overall seroprevalence of 14.69% was found in all 490 samples. Highest seroprevalence was found in Karnataka state with 21.73%, while it was observed lowest in Haryana state (8.86%). Birds ageing more than 45 weeks were found most seropositive for antibodies against Salmonella (21.51%). It was also observed that fowl typhoid spreads and infects the birds highest in monsoon season (20.83%), whereas it was found least in winter (7.42%). Appropriate biosecurity measures, cleaning and disinfection processes can prevent the occurrence, and improve egg quality and production. The study can be extended with data of other states and with isolation and identification of bacteria.


Key words: Breeders, Fowl typhoid, India, Poultry, Seroprevalence

 
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Research Article



COMPARATIVE  HISTOLOGICAL  STUDIES ON  THE  CAECA  OF GOAT,  PIG,  DOG AND  BROILER  CHICKEN


........................................................... 85 - 90


S. R. PAUL, P. DAS AND R. K. GHOSH

 

Department of Veterinary Anatomy

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata – 700 037, West Bengal


A comparative histological study was conducted on the caeca of goat, pig, dog and broiler chicken by using six samples of each species. Significant differences were recorded in histo-morphological architecture. It was observed that the caecal wall composed of four layers (tunica mucosa, tunica submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa) in goat, dog, pig and broiler chicken. In dog a number of large projections were directed towards the lumen. Villi were detected in the proximal part of the caecum in pig and broiler chicken. Uneven distribution of lymphatic nodules were detected in the wall of the caeca of pig, dog and broiler chicken. However in the wall of the caeca of goat, aggregation of lymphocytes was observed in place of nodules. The intestinal glands were found to be long and compact in the caeca of goat, dog and broiler chicken, whereas in the pigs they were less in number and shallow.


Key words: Caecum, Intestinal glands, Lymphatic nodules

 
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Short Communication




SERODIAGNOSTIC  APPROACHES  TO  DETECT BRUCELLOSIS IN  GOATS  IN  AN  OUTBREAK  IN KADAPA  DISTRICT,  ANDHRA PRADESH


............................................................ 91 - 94


B. DEEPTHI, R. N. RAMANI PUSHPA AND G. RAMBABU

 

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

NTR College of Veterinary Science

Gannavaram, Krishna District, AP- 521 102


The present study addresses an outbreak of brucellosis in a goat flock which showed a high abortion rate. Serum samples of the affected animals were screened by various serological tests viz. Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), Serum agglutination test (SAT), Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i- ELISA) and Lateral flow assay (LFA). Except LFA, all other tests proved effective. The present study shows the need for effective screening and control programmes to eradicate the disease in small ruminants.


Key words: Brucellosis, Goats, i-ELISA, LFA, RBPT, SAT

 
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Short Communication



SERO-SURVEILLANCE  OF  NEWCASTLE  DISEASE  VIRUS IN  KUROILERS  AND  INDIGENOUS  BIRDS  IN  DARJEELING  DISTRICT


 ........................................................ 95 - 98


P. GHOSH, I. SAMANTA, S. N. JOARDAR, G.P. MANDAL, D. P. ISORE, S.DEY AND K. BATABYAL

 

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37, K.B. Sarani, Kolkata- 700 037


Kuroilers are semi-synthetic, dual purpose breed of birds with higher productivity than indigenous breeds and are commonly reared in hilly area like Darjeeling district of West Bengal. The present study was intended to detect the sero-prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in kuroilers and indigenous birds in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. The serum samples from kuroilers (n=10) and indigenous birds (Deshi or non-descript chicken, n=17) were collected from different regions of Darjeeling district following the standard procedure. Unvaccinated birds were selected for the study. An indirect ELISA was performed by using a kit for detection of NDV antibodies following the manufacturer’s instructions. In total, 22 samples (22/27, 81.4%) (8 from Kuroiler and 14 from indigenous birds) showed the antibody titer above the cut off value which was considered as positive as per the manufacturer’s instruction.


Key words: Kuroiler, Newcastle disease, Seroprevalence, West Bengal

 
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Short Communication



REMOVAL  OF  IMPACTED  ALUMINIUM  WIRE  FROM PHARYNX  OF  CATTLE :  A CONSERVATIVE  TREATMENT


............................................................ 99 - 100


M. SHANDILYA, G. KOLI, S. GHARU, S. SINGH AND P. BISHNOI


Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner

Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Bikaner -334 001


An 8 year old cow was presented in emergency unit of TVCC, CVAS, RAJUVAS, Bikaner with a history of impacted foreign body (aluminium wire) in oral cavity visible from outside. Clinical examination revealed drooling of saliva and impaired rumination. A lateral radiograph revealed presence of impacted aluminium wire in oropharyngeal part of pharynx. Hence, the article represents successful manual removal of impacted foreign body in a cow from oropharynx.


Key words: Aluminium wire, Conservative treatment, Impacted foreign body, Pharynx

 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF  IMPACTED   PREMOLAR  AND  MOLAR  TEETH  IN  A  GERMAN  SHEPHERD  DOG

........................................................ 101 - 104


V. KUMAR, V. LALZAWMLIANA, B. TRIPATHY, R. K. JHA, P. MUKHERJEE,

S. CHAUDHURI, S. HALDER AND S. K. NANDI


Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37, K. B. Sarani, Kolkata- 700 037


The present case report represents a clinical case of German Shepherd dog presented with the history of accident with difficulties in chewing.  Radiological examination revealed the embedding of both the premolar and molar teeth in upper part of the right gum. It was successfully treated with standard surgical protocol.


Key words: German shepherd, Molar teeth, Premolar

 
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Short Communication



DERMATOPHILOSIS  (STREPTOTHRICOSIS)  IN       CROSS BRED  JERSEY  CATTLE  -  CASE  REPORT


............................................................... 105 - 108


R.SELVAKKUMAR,  S.GANESH KUMAR,  P.ANURADHA AND S.C.EDWIN

 

 

Instructional Livestock Farm Complex

Veterinary College and Research Institute

Tirunelveli- 627 358, Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University


In this paper, we present the clinical findings of Dermatophilosis in three cross bred Jersey cattle. All the cases occurred in wet (rainy season) season, in adult dairy cows. Matted hair, raised, distinct or confluent scabs and crusted lesions were commonly observed on the skin of sides and udder of the animal. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis was done by culturing the clinical materials on blood agar. Treatment was attempted with topical application of herbal spray (Topicure) and parental administration of long acting oxytetracyclin for five consecutive days. The affected animals recovered from the skin lesions within one month. The isolation of diseased cattle, proper disposal of crusts / scabs, control of ticks and other ectoparasites may help to reduce the incidence of disease.


Key words :Dermatophilosis, Dermatophilus congolensis, Jersey cattle, Streptothricosis Tamil Nadu


 
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Short Communication



EXPULSION  OF  CONJOINED  TWIN  MONSTER  FETUS  IN  A  MURRAH  BUFFALO  THROUGH  FETOTOMY


.......................................................... 109 - 110


V. SINGH, R. K. GUPTA, V. SACHAN*, C.L. YADAV, A. KUMAR AND D. K. YADAV

 

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

DUVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, Pin- 281 001


This communication reports a case of dystocia due to a conjoined twin monster fetus with dicephalus sternopagus tetrabrachius tetrapus dicaudatus along with scoliosis and its per- vaginal delivery by fetotomy in a buffalo.


Key words : Congenital defect, Dystocia, Fetotomy, Monster

 
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Short Communication



ASCITES  OF  CARDIAC  ORIGIN  IN  A  DOG - A CASE STUDY


............................................................. 111 - 112


P. MUKHERJEE, J. MUKHERJEE, S. S. KESH AND P. K. DAS

 

Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mohanpur Campus

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, Pin- 741 246


A four years old male Labrabor Retriever dog was presented to the clinic with a history of anorexia since last 45 days with dyspnoea and enlarged abdomen. Physical examination, ultrasonographic scan and ECG study revealed ascites with myocardial ischemia. The present study describes different diagnostic modalities along with treatment options for ascites in canine due to cardiac origin.

 

Key words: Ascites, ECG, Haematology, Ultrasonography, Ventricular enlargement

 
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Short Communication



ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LACTOGENIC HORMONES AND MILK COMPONENTS IN MITHUN (Bos frontalis)


............................................................. 113 - 118


K. VUPRU, P.K. DAS, J. MUKHERJEE, D. BANERJEE, P.R. GHOSH, P. PERUMAL1 AND A. MITRA

 

Department of Veterinary Physiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37, K B Sarani, Kolkata – 700 037


To find out the association between major plasma lactogenic hormones and milk constituents in mithun, milk samples were collected from 11 mithun cows of 2-6 parity from the day of calving till dry off. Various milk constituents were estimated as per standard method. Serum growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxine, T4) were estimated by commercially available ELISA kits. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between total milk yield and lactogenic hormones except for T4, which was negatively (P<0.01) correlated with milk yield. Milk protein content was found to be negatively correlated with cortisol (P<0.01), prolactin (P<0.05) and T4 (P<0.05). Milk fat content was negatively (P<0.01) correlated with lactogenic hormones except T4. Milk solid not fat (SNF) was positively correlated with lactogenic hormones where as milk total solids were negatively (P<0.01) correlated with the lactogenic hormones. In conclusions, this study confirmed the positive effect of lactogenic hormones (GH, prolactin, cortisol) on milk yield and negative effect on milk fat and protein content in mithun.


Key words: Hormone, Lactation, Milk constituents, Mithun

 
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Short Communication




CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL  CHARACTERIZATION  AND CLINICO HAEMATOLOGICAL  EVALUATION  OF TRANSMISSIBLE  VENEREAL  TUMOR  IN  CANINES


......................................................... 119 - 122


K. ANUSHA, CH. SUDHA RANI CHOWDARY, M. SRINIVAS AND G. VENKATA NAIDU

 

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics

NTR College of Veterinary Science

Gannavaram, Krishna(dt), Andhra Pradesh- 521 102


Cytological and haematological study of twenty dogs with transmissible venereal tumor before and after treatment with vincristine revealed that, the predominant cell type was lymphocytoid (70%) and all the cases were responded to vincristine after 4- 6 injections at weekly intervals without adverse side effects.


Key words: Cytomorpholgy, Transmissible venereal tumor, Vincristine

 
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Indian Journal of Animal Health

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