Indian Journal Of Animal Health

Published by

West Bengal Veterinary Association
NAAS SCORE - 4.08

Indian Journal of Animal Health
VOL. 57, NO.1 . JUNE, 2018
 

Review Article



FUTURE  SCOPE  OF  SPORT  FISHERIES  DEVELOPMENT  IN  INDIA: A  REVIEW

.................................................................................1-16


A. MANDAL, S. K. DAS, B. BISWAS1 AND S. O. KAIRNAR

 

Department of Aquaculture

College of Fisheries, GADVASU

Ludhiana, Punjab, India

 

Sport fishing is one of the most adventurous activities  throughout the world. Most of the developed and developing countries have the modern tools and techniques for catching the fish. In the developing country like in India, there is a huge gap on information, scientific knowledge about sport fish as because the sport fishing activities is region and species specific. Though few states in India follow the Government rules and regulation but there is a lack of awareness about sport fishing activities to conserve the threatened and going to endanger fish species. Also the activity will help to mitigate unemployment problem through income generation; simultaneously catering ecotourism avenues. Moreover Government interference is also necessary for sustainable development and management of sport fisheries activity in India.


Key words: Conservation, Employment opportunity, Rules and Regulation, Sport fishing, Sustainable development

 
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Research Article



EFFECTS OF TWO REARING SYSTEMS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND SLAUGHTER PERFORMANCE OF LUSHI GREEN LAYER BIRDS


...................................................................................17-26


N. LI, J. L. WANG, T. S. XU, X. Q. LEI, Q. J. WU, N. LIU F. Y. WEN, L. Z. GAO AND Z. Q. XIAO

 

College of Animal Science and Technology

Henan University of Science and Technology

Luoyang, Henan- 471 023, China


This study evaluated the effects of two management systems (battery cage and semi-intensive) on the digestive organ development and slaughter performance of Lushi green layer birds. Sixty layer chickens, Lushi green, seven weeks old were used. Thirty chickens were placed in each of the two systems. Ten (half male and half female) chickens from each management system were selected randomly for slaughter and relevant indexes were measured. Results showed that the liver, gizzard, pancreas and gizzard organ indexes of the roosters reared under the semi-intensive system were higher than those of the cage reared roosters (P<0.05). The digestive organ index of the hens reared under the semi-intensive system was also higher than that of the cage reared hens (P<0.05). The lengths of the jejunum, ileum, and ceca and the jejunum relatively small intestine index of the chickens reared under the semi-intensive system were higher than those of the cage reared chickens (P<0.05). The thigh muscle and abdominal fat yields of male and female chickens reared under the semi-intensive system were lower compared with those of the cage-reared ones (P<0.05). These results indicated that rearing method influences the slaughter performance and digestive organ development of Lushi chickens. The digestion and absorption abilities of chickens reared under the semi-intensive system were generally better than those of cage-reared ones.


Key words: Digestive organ, Lushi green layer birds, Rearing system, Slaughter performance

 
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Research Article



PERCEPTION  OF  DAIRY  FARMERS  REGARDING EFFECTIVENESS  OF  ARTIFICIAL  INSEMINATION  SERVICES  OF  DIFFERENT  DAIRY  SERVICE DELIVERY  SYSTEMS


..................................................................................27-34


S. KARTHIKEYAN, M. C. ARUNMOZHI DEVI N. NARMATHA AND V. UMA


Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education

Veterinary College and Research Institute

TANUVAS, Namakkal-637 002, India


The perceived effectiveness of artificial insemination (AI) services offered by different dairy service delivery systems was studied in Namakkal district of Tamilnadu. A total of 120 respondents availing AI services from different dairy service delivery systems were selected using proportionate random sampling and data were collected and analyzed. Dairy co-operatives, private integrators, public departments, private veterinarians and para-veterinarians were the major AI service providers to the dairy farmers in the study area with nearly three-fourth of them have availed the service from the para-veterinarians (75.83%) followed by private veterinarians (57.50 %). The services of dairy co-operatives and private integrators were perceived to be cost effective with good conception rate but poor in quality and timeliness. The AI service of private veterinarians was perceived to be good in quality and timeliness with better conception rate, but costly. Overall it was perceived that artificial insemination service offered by public departments through veterinary dispensary and sub-centre were the best among other service providers because of their cheap, quality and timely delivery of service coupled with better conception rate.

 

Key words: Artificial insemination, Conception, Effectiveness, Timeliness, Quality

 
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Research Article



INTESTINAL  BACTERIAL  PATHOGENS  AND  RISK FACTORS  LEADING  TO  BACTERIAL  DIARRHEA  IN  CAMEL  CALVES  IN  SELECTED  DISTRICTS  OF  AFAR  NATIONAL  REGIONAL  STATE,  NORTH  EAST  ETHIOPIA


.................................................................................35-50


MU-UZ GEBRU, F. ZERU, N. KUMAR, A. TASHEW AND D. MERESA


College of Veterinary Medicine

Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


To investigate intestinal bacterial pathogens and characterization of Escherichia coli isolates besides assessing management as well as herd and calf-level risk factors associated with camel calf diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts of Afar region, Ethiopia. A total of 384 fecal swabs were collected from diarrheic, convalescent and apparently healthy camel calves aged 12 months or younger and processed using standard conventional and molecular assays. The risk factors were assessed during sample collection using questionnaire survey and observational assessment. Out of the 384 camel calves examined, 59.38% were found harboring one or more bacteria at varying levels. Salmonella (31.6%), E. coli (28.2%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.2%) were the predominant bacterial species isolated from the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) of apparently healthy calves. On the other hand, E. coli (58.5%), Salmonella (17.1%) and Enterococcus (14.6%) were the most frequently encountered bacterial species in the diarrheic calves. Analysis of the questionnaire data revealed inconsistency in colostrum feeding, poor calf barn sanitation and health management. Age and colostrum feeding were the major risk factors associated with bacterial isolation and occurrence of calf diarrhea. Accordingly, young calves (0-3 months old) that didn’t consume colostrum or received small amount of colostrum were at a significantly high risk of being affected with diarrhea (P<0.05).  This study supports the assertion of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica (gp3B) and Enterococcus feculis as being the most important pathogens involved in camel calf diarrhea and have important public health implication. Majority strains of the bacterial pathogens were found susceptible to norfloxacin, amoxicillin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline in vitro.


Key words: Afar, Bacteria, Camel calf, Diarrhea, E. coli, Risk factor

 
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Research Article



ISOLATION,  IDENTIFICATION,  ASSESSMENT  OF  PATHOGENECITY  AND  ANTIBIOTIC  SENSITIVITY  OF  YERSINIA  ENTEROCOLITICA ISOLATES  FROM  PIGS


........................................................................................51-60


R. BORAL, R. S. RATHORE, S. PAUL, A.K. MISHRA AND G. PATRA


Division of Veterinary Public Health

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

Izatnagar, Bareilly- 243 122, UP, India


Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes yersiniosis in humans and animals. The present study was undertaken to detect Y. enterocolitica from pigs and foods of porcine origin by conventional cultural technique, which is not generally used owing to its cumbersome and time consuming nature. Isolation of Yersinia spp. by conventional microbiological techniques includes cold enrichment of samples for 3 weeks followed by alkaline treatment and selective isolation using specific media for Yersinia spp. like cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin (CIN) media along with Yersinia selective supplement. In vitro pathogenecity and antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates recovered were also studied. Typical cultural and biochemical characteristics were used for the identification and confirmation of Y. enterocolitica isolates. Occurrence rate in pig faeces was 6.25 %; in pig tongues it was 7.5 %; in pig tonsils it was 15 % and it was 5 % in the ground pork samples. Occurrence rate was 8% with highest occurrence found in pig tonsils, whereas lowest in the ground pork samples. All the isolates were found positive for congo red binding test, crystal violet binding test and autoagglutination tests. In vitro sensitivity profile of the isolates against 12 commonly used antibiotics revealed that 100% of Y. enterocolitica isolates were sensitive to amikacin and gentamycin and resistant to erythromycin and ampicillin. Most of the isolates were sensitive for ciprofloxacin (87.5 %), norfloxacin (87.5 %), neomycin (87.5 %), tetracycline (75 %), nalidixicacid (75 %).


Key words: Antibiotic sensitivity, CIN agar, Foodborne infection, Pigs, Yesinia enterocolitica

 
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Research Article



ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO- BIOCHEMICAL  CHARACTERIZATION  OF  IMMUNOGLOBULIN G  OF  JAMUNAPARI  GOAT (Capra hircus)


...................................................................................61-66


N. N. FARUQUEE, S. BATABYAL, S. CHATTOPADHYAY, A. MAITY, P. K. DAS, K. BATABYAL, S. S. KESH, R. TUDU AND A. BARUI

 

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata- 700 037, India


Jamunapari is one of the largest and most popular goat breeds in India. The present study was carried out to purify and characterize the IgG of Jamunapari goat since IgG plays central role in the fight against infectious diseases. The IgG of Jamunapari goat could be isolated by salting out (50% saturated ammonium sulfate solution) and purified by the gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The Jamunapari goat immunoglobulin G (IgG) was obtained in relatively purified form. The purified Jamunapari goat IgG revealed major bands of 61 kDa, 55 kDa, suggestive of heavy chains and 28kDa, 23 kDa, suggestive of light chains. The purified immunoglobulin has been found to be immunoreactive by DID and western blot analysis in the present study.

 

Key words: DID, IgG, SDS-PAGE, Western blot

 
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Research Article



DETECTION  OF  NITRITE  IN  PROCESSED  AND   READY  TO  EAT  MEAT  PRODUCTS IN  AND  AROUND  KOLKATA


.........................................................................................67-72


A. DHARMSINGH, C. DEBNATH AND A. BANERJEE 


Department of Veterinary Public Health

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037, India


In processed meat items, nitrites are common ingredients used as preservatives as well as to increase the aesthetic value of the food items. However, its regular and excessive intake may impair oxygen transportation, cause cancer, type I diabetes in children, irritate the digestive system, abdominal pain, damage to blood cells and blood vessels, difficulty breathing etc. The present study was undertaken with an objective to find out the level of nitrites present in various processed and ready to eat meat products namely Kabiraji, Nuggets, Pakodas, Sausages, Salami and Chicken Popcorn collected from different restaurants and retail outlets in and around Kolkata by using Ultra Violet spectrophotometer. Out of total 66 samples tested 6 samples of Kabiraji, 5 samples of chicken pakodas, 8 samples of nuggets, 3 samples of chicken burgers, 3 samples of salamis and 3 samples of chicken popcorns were found to be loaded with more than the acceptable limit of nitrites in them, which is highly alarming from the public health point of view.


Key words: Curing, Fast food, Meat foods, Preservatives, Spectrophotometry

 
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Research Article



CYTOPATHOLOGICAL  STUDIES  ON  CANINE MAMMARY  TUMORS  OF  EPITHELIAL  ORIGIN


..................................................................................73-80


Y. M. KOTRAPPA, S. RAO, B. C. GIRISH AND S. M. BYREGOWDA


Syngene International Ltd, Biocon Park

Jigani Link Road, Bommasandra, Bengaluru

Karnataka- 560 099, India


Canine mammary tumors are considered as useful animal models in understanding human breast cancers. They can present either as malignant or benign variants and can have different origin from epithelial to mesenchymal tissues. In the current investigation, based on histogenesis, the mammary tumors were classified as adenocarcinoma, co-existing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed mammary tumor and fibroadenoma. Cytologically, the epithelial cells were arranged in sheets, clusters and also as individual cells with occasional acinar structures having eccentrically placed nuclei in adenocarcinomas. In the coexisting type with squamous cell carcinoma features of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas were noticed. The cytology of malignant mixed mammary gland tumor revealed epithelial as well as mesenchymal cells. Cytological smears from a solitary case of fibroadenoma revealed less number of cells that exhibited uniform size with eccentrically placed nucleus.


Key words: Adenocarcinoma, Canine, Cytology, Mammary tumors

 
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Research Article



HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL  CHANGES  IN DOGS  INFECTED  WITH  BABESIA SP.


.......................................................................................81-86


B. SUBHASH CHANDRA, K. RAJKUMAR, P. VIJAYALAKSHMI AND

A. ABIRAMY@PRABAVATHY


Department of Veterinary Medicine,  Teaching Veterinary Clinical Campus

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research

Mettupalayam, Puducherry -605 009, India


The aim of the presented study was to statistically analyze haemato-biochemical abnormalities in Babesia sp. infected dogs. Sixty-eight dogs presented to Small Animal Medicine Unit of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Campus, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Institution and Research with clinical signs suggestive of Babesia sp. were subjected for blood smear examination, from which nine dogs were positive for babesiosis. Dogs with babesiosis were subjected for various haemato-biochemical studies and the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Even though drastic changes were noticed in individual dogs, the most significant abnormality was found to be thrombocytopenia.


Key words: Babesiosis, Blood analysis, Dogs, Thrombocytopenia

 
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Research Article



PREVALENCE  OF  DUCK  HEPATITIS  IN  AN EXPERIMENTAL  FARM  IN  BHUBANESWAR


..................................................................................87-92


D. MONDAL AND S. K. SAHOO

 

Regional Centre

Central Avian Research Institute

PO. Baramunda, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


A study was made of duck hepatitis for a period of five years at a duck farm in Regional Station, Central Avian Research Institute, Bhubaneswar.  Out of 6928 deaths, a total of 199 ducks died of hepatitis. The mortality due to hepatitis was 0.17%. Of the total hepatitis death 121 were adults, while ducklings and grower of 39 each. Mortality of females was more in comparison to males. Hepatitis was more prevalent during the month of December, November, January and February than other months of years.  Affected ducks revealed, lethargy, anorexia, blindness, opisthotonous, progressive weakness and ruffled feather. Highest prevalence of duck hepatitis was found in Khaki Campbell followed by Desi, White Pekin and Moti (Muscovy) respectively. Necropsy showed splenomegaly, congested and enlarged kidney, distended gall bladder, haemorrahgic and necrosis in liver and ascites with pendulous abdomen.


Key Words: Clinical signs, Duck, Hepatitis, Prevalence

 
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Short Communication



CONCENTRATION  OF  CHROMIUM  IN  EGG  YOLK  AND  MEAT  OF  JAPANESE  QUAILS  IN  RESPONSE  TO DIETARY  CHROMIUM  SUPPLEMENTATION


.......................................................................................93-98


G. P. MOGHANAPRIYA, P. VEERAMANI AND K. PASUPATHI

 

Directorate of Distance Education

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Chennai-600 035, India


An experiment was conducted to study the concentration of chromium in egg yolk and meat of Japanese quails. A total of 700 day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into seven treatment groups with four replicates consisting of 25 chicks in each replicate. The feed supplemented with inorganic chromium, organic chromium (chromium with azolla and chromium with yeast) at 500 and 1000 ppb levels and a control diet without chromium supplement fed to quails from day old to fourteen weeks of age. At six week of age, twelve birds from each replicate were selected randomly and slaughtered. Meat samples were collected for chromium analysis. Totally eight eggs from each treatment were collected during 14 weeks of age for analyzing the chromium content. Significantly higher chromium content was noticed in egg yolk (17.63±0.65ppb) and meat (6.37±0.69ppb) of Japanese quails fed with 1000 ppb of chromium enriched yeast diet. A very less chromium concentration was observed in inorganic chromium supplemented group.


Key words: Egg yolk, Inorganic chromium, Meat, Organic chromium, Quails

 
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Short Communication



ASCITES  OF  HEPATO-CARDIAC  ORIGIN  IN A  LABRADOR  RETRIEVER  DOG


..................................................................................99-102


C. SEN, A. MAJIE, J. MUKHERJEE, D. GHOSH, P. MUKHERJEE, S. S. KESH, S. CHAUDHURY AND P. K. DAS

 

Department of Veterinary Physiology

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037, West Bengal, India


The present study describes the diagnosis of an ascites of hepato-cardiac origin in a two year old Labrador Retriever bitch.  The animal was suffering from chronic cough and recurrent ascites for more than six months. The physical examination revealed ascites which was confirmed through ultrasonography along with hepatic cyst. All the hemato-biochemical reports were found normal except TLC. Upon electrocardiography, it was revealed biphasic QRS comples (rS), widening of S wave and right axis deviation suggestive of right bundle branch block.

 

Key word: Ascites, Bundle branch block, ECG, Ultrasonography

 
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Short Communication



AN  OUTBREAK  OF  INFECTIOUS  CAPRINE KERATO-CONJUNCTIVITIS  IN  A  FLOCK OF  GOATS – CASE  REPORT


.......................................................................................103-108


G. S. PANDEY


Department of Disease Control

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia

P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia


Infectious  caprine kerato-conjunctivitis (ICK) is a highly contagious and multifactorial bacterial disease of goats having enormous difference in the clinico-pathological picture. A total of six crossbred young Boer goats out of 124 in a flock, showing emaciation, corneal opacity and blindness at a farm in Lusaka district of Zambia, when clinically examined. Clinical examination revealed mucopurulent ocular discharge, corneal opacity and partial to complete blindness. Corneal swabs culture yielded Mycoplasma spp. and Pseudomonas aureginosa from all six goats. The diagnosis of ICK arrived on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory investigation. The treatment consisting of daily eyewash with clean warm water, a single injection of long-acting oxytetracycline and application of oxytetracycline opthalmic ointment, three times a day resulted in the recovery and vision restoration of all six goats within 8-12 days. This warrants farmers and veterinarians to practice prevention and treatment when noticed among goats. To the best knowledge of the author, this is first documented report of infectious caprine kerato-conjunctivitis (ICK) among goats in Zambia.


Key words: Goats, Infectious kerato-conjunctivitis, Mycoplasma spp., Oxytetracycline ointment, Zambia

 
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Short Communication



ENDOSCOPIC  EVALUATION  OF  FEED  STEM  INDUCED  PHARYNGEAL  LACERATION  IN  A  JERSEY CROSSBRED  COW


......................................................................................109-112


K. SASIKALA AND G.VIJAYAKUMAR

  

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine

Veterinary College and Research Institute

Namakkal - 637 002, Tamil Nadu, India


A five years old female Jersey crossbred cow was presented with the history of anorexia and drooling of saliva and also reported that the owner used feed stem to push the deworming boluses inside the oesophagus. Clinical examination revealed extended head and neck, dysphagia, ptyalism and large, extensive and palpable firm swelling at pharyngeal region. The laboratory findings were insignificant. Radiograph of upper cervical region revealed generalized soft tissue swelling. Video endoscopy of pharynx revealed feed stem deeply piercing inside the pharynx. Mouth gag applied and feed stem measuring about 42 cm was removed manually. On pharyngoscopy, hyperemia, edematous swelling, severe cellulitis, deep laceration with uneven surfaces and mild necrosis were observed. The animal was treated with Ringer’s lactate, streptopenicillin and flunixin meglumine for five days. The animal recovered uneventfully following treatment.

 

 Key words: Cow, Endoscopy, Management, Pharyngeal laceration

 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF  OBLIQUE  DIPHYSEAL  TIBIAL  FRACTURE  IN  CANINE


.......................................................................................113-116


D. GHOSH, V. KUMAR, A. DEBNATH, V. LALZAWMLIANA, P. MUKHERJEE, S. CHOWDHURY AND S. K. NANDI

 

Department of Surgery and Radiology

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata- 700 037, India


A cross breed medium size dog, aged nine months was presented in the clinic with a history of accident, swelling on the lateral aspect of tibia. The radiological examination confirmed a complete oblique mid shaft fracture of tibia.  Hybrid internal fixation with intra medullary pinning combined with cerclage wiring was used for fracture repair with standard surgical approach to bone under standard anaesthetic protocol. The patient was successfully treated and recovered completely after 2 months.


Key words: Anaesthetics, Cerclage wiring, Fracture, Intramedullary pin

 
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Short Communication



POST  MORTEM  FINDINGS  OF  A  BUFFALO  CALF   SUFFERED  FROM  INTESTINAL  COCCIDIOSIS


........................................................................................117-120


M. SHARMA, B. L. JANGIR AND K. K. JAKHAR


Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Sciences

Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Hisar- 125 004, Haryana, India


Coccidiosis is an important protozoan disease caused by various species of the genus Eimeria. It causes considerable animal health problems and economic losses in ruminants due to severe enteritis. The present study reports a case of intestinal coccidiosis in a young buffalo calf of 17 days old brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Sciences of the University for the postmortem examination. Clinical history revealed illness since last five days showing clinical signs such as anorexia, oral lesions and yellowish diarrhoea. Grossly, intestines showed congestion and haemorrhages. On opening, it showed thickened and congested mucosa and presence of catarrhal exudate. Faecal sample examination revealed numerous coccidian oocysts. Microscopically, intestine revealed enteritis characterized by denudation of mucosal epithelium, stunted and fused villi, congestion and haemorrhages and leucocytic infiltration mainly lymphocytes in mucosa and submucosa. It also showed presence of gametogenic stages of coccidian parasites predominantly immature gametocytes in mucosa and crypt epithelium of small intestine. Based on above findings, case was diagnosed as of intestinal coccidiosis.


Key words: Buffalo calf, Coccidian oocysts, Enteritis, Gametocytes, Postmortem


 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF  DISTAL  DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURE  IN  RADIUS  AND  ULNA  USING  T-PLATE IN  WHIPPET  DOG


........................................................................................121-124


V. KUMAR, V. LALZAWMLIANA, P. MUKHERJEE AND S. K. NANDI

 

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata- 700 037, India


A one year old male Whippet dog was presented with a history of accident and non-weight bearing lameness of the right forelimb. The radiological examination confirmed a complete oblique distal diaphyseal fracture of right radius and ulna. T-plate with screw was opted to manage the fracture with standard anaesthetic protocol. The patient was successfully treated and recovered completely after 2 months. Thus, the present report describes a successful management of oblique distal diaphyseal fracture of right radius and ulna with T-plate in a dog.


Key words: Fracture, Oblique, Radius-ulna, T bone plate

 
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