Indian Journal Of Animal Health

Published by

West Bengal Veterinary Association
NAAS SCORE - 4.08

Indian Journal of Animal Health
VOL. 56, NO.2 . DECEMBER, 2017
 

Review Article



METHANE  MITIGATION  STRATEGIES IN  RUMINANT  LIVESTOCK


............................................................................. 125-144


N. KUMAR*, B. GEBREKIDAN, T. T. GEBREWAHD AND A. BSRAT


College of Veterinary Medicine

Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


Greenhouse gas emissions have become an increasingly important worldwide due to their effects on global warming. Ruminant livestock are the most important source of anthropogenic emissions of methane worldwide. They produce about 8.1 gigatonnes of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore, it is compelling animal scientists to find solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. The sustainability and profitability of the mitigation options are of prime concern to the researchers. The objective of this review is to explain several alternatives available to reduce enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants that range from manipulating diet composition, supplementing feed additives (i.e. ionophores, organic acids, halogenated compounds and oils) and selection of forage plants of high quality and containing secondary metabolites (i.e. tannins and  saponins) to animal breeding, immunization and manipulation of rumen microorganisms. Overall current mitigation strategies are focused to improve nutrition of ruminants through feeding high quality forages with sufficient concentrate that can result in high animal performance and reduce CH4 emitted per unit of dry matter intake and per unit of product.


Key words: Emissions, Feed efficiency, Methane, Methanogen, Mitigation, Ruminant


 
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Review Article



OVARIAN  BIOMETRY  WITH  ROLE  AND  DISTRIBUTION  OF TRACE  ELEMENTS  IN  OVARIAN  FOLLICULAR  FLUIDS  OF  GOAT:  AN  OVERVIEW


..............................................................................145-156


N. DALAI*, K. DAS1, P. K. DAS, P. R. GHOSH, S. SHEKHAR AND G. D. V. PANDIYAN


Department of Veterinary Physiology

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751 003

 

Follicular fluid is an avascular compartment within the mammalian ovary, separated from the perifollicular stroma by the follicular wall that constitutes a ‘blood-follicle-barrier’ and also maintains proper environment for growth and maturation of the oocyte. It plays a role in the physiological, biochemical and metabolic aspects of the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocyte. Information on the biometrics of the reproductive system of livestock animal is necessary in order to improve the fertility, the reproductive performance as well as enabling the adoption of other assisted reproductive technologies. Trace elements are highly essential for health and immunity, and also their contribution to growth, production and reproduction. Their deficiency affects both steroid and thyroid hormone production.


Key words: Blood-follicle-barrier, Follicular fluid, Oocyte, Reproduction, Trace elements

 
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Review Article



SEXED  SEMEN  TECHNOLOGY  IN  CATTLE


................................................................................157-168


N. KUMAR*, B. GEBREKIDAN, T. T. GEBREWAHD AND B. HADUSH

 

College of Veterinary Medicine

Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

 

Gender sorting is one of the biggest outcome of research in livestock sector during last two decades of twentieth century. Sexed bovine semen came to the stage of broad commercial application within past few years. Use of sexed semen in dairy sector not only increase the number of superior heifers but also increase the genetic progress in a herd. It also helps in producing good male germplasm from elite bulls for future breeding. Several attempts have been made in different part of world and various methods are developed based on density gradient centrifugation or swim-up, sex specific antibodies, free flow electrophoresis and flow cytometry that efficiently separate bovine semen into fractions containing higher concentrations of X or Y chromosome bearing sperm. Among many proposed methods of sex sorting, flow cytometry is the only method proven to be commercially viable with around 90% accuracy to produce calves of desirable sex. However, during sorting of sperm by flow cytometry, sperm passes through nozzle with pressure, dyeing of DNA, passing through ultraviolet laser beam, electrostatic separation and centrifugation all leads to alteration of membrane and other changes like pre-capacitation in the sorted sperm leading to decrease in fertility. Despite these limitations, production of sexed semen usually followed by cryopreservation is being used commercially for cattle production. Advancement of instrument and enhancement of viable sperm count during sorting and also purity is still important area of investigation. With additional research, use of sexed semen with dairy heifers and cows could become widespread. Hence, this paper is reviewing the sexed semen methodology and applications in dairy cattle.


Key words: Dairy, Flow cytometry, Sexed semen, Spermatozoa

 
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Research Article



INFLUENCE  OF  PARENTERAL  ADMINISTRATION  OF VITAMIN E  AND  SELENIUM  DURING  PERIPARTURIENT PERIOD  ON  THYROID (T3& T4)  PROFILE  IN  SURTI BUFFALOES


....................................................................................169-180


L. C. MODI*, C. T. KHASATIYA, N. F. CHAUDHARI, J. H. PATEL, C. F. CHAUDHARI AND F. MODI

 

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Navsari Agricultural University

Navsari, Gujarat- 396 450

 

A study was conducted on twenty Surti buffaloes during their transient period maintained at the LRS, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. The animals were divided into two groups comprising of ten animals in each group as: Group-I: Treatment group of Surti buffaloes treated with inj. vitamin E and selenium (E-CARE Se) on 60th, 45th, 30th and 15th day before expected date of parturition and after parturition on 15th, 30th day intramuscular (IM) and Group-II: Control group of Surti buffaloes given inj. normal saline (IM) as placebo treatment. Blood samples were collected on same days before injection as well as on the day of parturition, 45 and 60 days postpartum in serum clotting vacutainer. The mean serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentration was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher on the day of parturition and significantly lower values at 30th day and 60th day postpartum in treatment than control group, while, non-significantly lower values at 15th day and higher at 45th day postpartum. The mean serum thyroxine (T4) concentration was found non-significantly lower at 60th day prepartum in treatment than control group, but it was significantly higher at 45th day and non-significantly higher at 30th day and again significantly higher at 15th day before parturition and on the day of calving and thereafter fluctuated non-significantly higher at 15th day, lower at 30th day, higher at 45th day and non-significantly lower at 60th day after parturition. The mean serum T3 and T4 concentration did not differ significantly between pregnant and non-pregnant groups at any of the days studied.


Key words: Periparturient period, Selenium, Surti buffalo, Thyroid profile, Vitamin E

 
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Research Article



KNOWLEDGE REGARDING SCIENTIFIC CALF REARING AND CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND ITS ADOPTION AMONG RURAL WEAKER SECTIONS IN TAMIL NADU


..............................................................................181-186


K. M. SAKTHIVEL*1, N. NARMATHA AND V. UMA


Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education

Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal -637 002

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University


A study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of rural weaker sections in scientific calf rearing and clean milk production practices in Vellore and Cuddalore districts of Tamil Nadu. Data were collected from 100 dairy farmers belonging to scheduled caste category in Vellore and Cuddalore districts. The findings of the study revealed that the rural weaker sections of both  the districts had poor knowledge in most of the aspects of calf rearing viz. aseptically cutting of umbilical cord, time of first deworming, quantity of milk fed to new born calf, age of introducing green fodder, age of introducing concentrate, dehorning practices and age at weaning. More than 70 % of the farmers of both districts had knowledge regarding time of colostrum feeding, removal of mucus from nostrils, assisting weak calves to suck milk. In regard to clean milk production practices, the rural weaker sections of both the districts were found to be not aware of mastitis detection test, use of teat dip, right method of milking and storage of milk in cool place until dispatching. It could be concluded that rural weaker sections involved in dairying lacked knowledge on the importance of scientific calf rearing and clean milk production practices. Therefore awareness on these aspects should be imparted through various extension programmes and training.


Key words : Dairy farmers, Calf rearing, Clean milk production, Weaker sections


 
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Research Article



EFFECTS  OF  CYPERMETHRIN  ON  HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS  OF  AIR  BREATHING  FISH  Heteropneustes fossilis AND  USE  OF  DIETARY  ASCORBIC ACID  AS  AN ANTIDOTE


..............................................................................187-196


S. CHATTERJEE (SAHA)* AND A. KAVIRAJ


Nabadwip Vidyasagar College

Nabadwip-741 302, Nadia, W.B., India

 

Histopathological changes in erythrocytes and changes in haematological profile were observed in adult Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to cypermethrin respectively to lethal dose (1.0 µg / L ) for 24h and sub-lethal doses (0.3 and 0.5 µg / L ) for 72h. The two sub-lethal doses were tested alone as well as with low (50 mg/100g) and high (100 mg/100g) level of dietary ascorbic acid (AA). The results showed that the lethal dose of cypermethrin resulted in complete dissolution of plasma membrane and the cytoplasm thereby exposing the nucleus. Under the sublethal doses of cypermethrin total erythrocyte count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell (corpuscular) volume (MCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) decreased in fish fed diet with no supplement of AA as compared to control. These effects of cypermethrin were counteracted by high level of dietary AA, while low the level of dietary AA level failed to counteract the effects of cypermethrin. It is concluded from this study that dietary supplement of ascorbic acid @ 100mg/100g is capable to prevent adverse effects of cypermethrin on haematological parameters of H. fossilis.


Key words: Ascorbic acid, Cypermethrin, Fish, Haemoglobin, Heteropneustes fossilis

 
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Research Article



SEROPREVALENCE  OF  BLUETONGUE  IN  SHEEP  GOATS  AND  CATTLE  OF  MEGHALAYA


................................................................................197-202

 

R. NONGDHAR, D. P. ISORE, S. N. JOARDAR*, I. SAMANTA, K. BATABYAL, S. DEY, C. LODH1 AND A. BARUI

 

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037

 

The study was undertaken to assess the presence of bluetongue (BT) infection, if any, among the cattle, sheep and goats  of  Meghalaya. Meghalaya is a North-eastern state of India, where BT incidence/outbreak has not been reported in animals so far. Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy sheep, goats and cattle from different districts (n=7) of Meghalaya. Anti-BT antibodies were detected in sera using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Out of total 702 samples (sheep-147, goats-188 and cattle-367) collected and tested, 43 from sheep (29.3%), 114 from goats (60.6%) and 168 from cattle (45.8%) were found to possess anti-BT antibodies. The present paper reports sero-prevalence status of bluetongue in Meghalaya, for the first time, which may indicates the presence of circulating bluetongue virus in the state.

 

Key words: Antibodies, Bluetongue, iELISA, Meghalaya, Seroprevalence, Virus

 
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Research Article



SOCIO-ECONOMIC  AND  PSYCHOLOGICAL  CHARACTERISTICS  OF DAIRY  CONTRACT  FARMERS


..............................................................................203-210


S. R. KALAIVANI, K. M. SAKTHIVEL*, N. NARMATHA, D. THIRUNAVUKKARASU AND V. UMA

 

Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Chennai -600 005, Tamil Nadu

 

With the increased participation of private players in milk procurement in the form of contractual arrangement, a study was undertaken to know the socio-economic and psychological characteristics of 120 dairy contract farmers in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The ex-post facto design research design was employed for the study and the data were collected from December 2014 to March 2015. The study revealed that majority of dairy contract farmers were male, marginal farmers, belonged to old age and low income group. Majority of the respondents were from nuclear family and had family size of up to 5 members. More than half of the family members of the respondents belonged to medium education and had crop farming plus dairy farming as their occupation. More than half of the respondents had medium level of dairy farming experience and had upto 3 years of contract farming experience. More than half of the respondents were member in one social organisation and had low level of extension agency contact. More than two-third (69.17 %) of the respondents produced and sold milk up to 20 litres and vast majority (90.83 %) of the respondents family  consumed up to 2 litres of milk. More than half of the respondents belonged to high level of cosmopoliteness (52.50 %), risk orientation (60.00 %) and scientific orientation (79.17 %) categories. These characteristics of farmers should be considered while organizing extension programmes for contract dairy farmers.


Key words: Dairy contract farmers and contract dairy farming, Socio-economic and psychological characteristics

 
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Research Article



PRINCIPAL  COMPONENT  FACTOR  ANALYSIS  OF  MORPHOSTRUCTURAL  TRAITS  OF  HARINGHATA BLACK  CHICKENS


...........................................................................211-218 


R. SAIKHOM, A. K. SAHOO, S. TARAPHDER*, S. PAN, U. SARKAR, P. R. GHOSH, D. BHATTACHARYA AND S. BAIDYA

 

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037, West Bengal, India


The study was carried out on Haringhata Black chickens with an aim to investigate the best component for describing the morphological structure using principal component analysis. Statistical analysis showed that mean body measurements were 1.85, 1.47, 4.84, 2.53, 2.98, 1.69, 2.93, 2.46, 3.90, 3.09, 2.45, 1.47, 5.44 and 20.15 cm for ocular length, ocular width, comb length, comb width, earlobe length, earlobe width, wattle length, wattle width, skull length, skull width, beak length, beak width, central toe length and neck length respectively at 24th week of age.  Highly significant (P<0.01) positive correlations were obtained ranging from 0.25 (neck length and ocular width; beak width and comb width) to 0.98 (wattle length and wattle width; comb length and comb width). Four principal components were extracted explaining 77.17 % of the total variation in the original variables. First principal component (PC1) had largest share (47.15 %) of the total variance and correlated highly with comb length (0.96), comb width (0.95), wattle length (0.96), wattle width (0.95), earlobe length (0.94) and earlobe width (0.84), while second principal component (PC2) had high positive loadings on ocular width (0.71) and beak length (0.67) at 24th week of age. Therefore, these six variables namely comb length, comb width, wattle length, wattle width, earlobe length and earlobe width have the highest correlations with the PC1 and could be used in characterization of this breed.

 

Key words: Haringhata Black chicken, Morphostrucrural trait, Principal component analysis

 
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Research Article



PHARMACOKINETICS  OF  AMOXICILLIN  IN  BROILER CHICKEN  FOLLOWING  A  SINGLE  ORAL   ADMINISTRATION


............................................................................219-224


M. KHAN* AND T. K. MANDAL


Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra

Palli Siksha Bhavana,Visva-Bharati

Sriniketan, Birbhum-731 236, West Bengal


Amoxicillin was given to six nos. of chickens at a dose of 20 mg/Kg of body weight orally. Plasma concentration was monitored serially for 24 h after oral administration. Concentrations of amoxicillin were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ka value and t½ Ka were 1.38±0.17 (hr1) and 0.51±0.07 (hr). On the other hand, elimination rate constant K and elimination half-life t½ K were found to be 0.18±0.01 (hr-1) and 3.95±0.14 (hr). The AUC and Vdarea values were 257.88±28.01 (µg hrL-1) and 0.41±0.07 (L Kg-1), while ClB value was 0.07±0.01 (LKg-1hr-1). The Cmax value was 38.87±2.94 (µgml-1) at Tmax 1.50±0.09 (hr). The MRT value was 6.02±1.73 (hr). The results indicated that amoxicillin persist in poultry bird for a shorter period following moderate absorption from GI tract.


Key Words: Amoxicillin, Broiler poultry, HPLC, Oral kinetic

 
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Research Article



EFFECT  OF  CONVENTIONAL  AND  SCIENTIFIC SLAUGHTERING  METHODS  ON CHICKEN  QUALITY


 ...............................................................................225-232


S. KUMAR, G. PATRA*, S. BISWAS, O. N. BHASKAR AND D. BHATTACHARYYA


Department of Livestock Products Technology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037


The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two different slaughter methods viz., conventional and scientific for identifying different microbial hazards, associated with different stages of poultry slaughtering. Meat samples were collected from different places and are subjected for microbial assessment, physico-chemical parameters and sensory attributes. It was found that total plate count (TPC) and phychrotropic count (PC) level in chicken, slaughtered by conventional method are significantly higher than that of in scientific method. The pH water holding capacity (WHC) and extract release volume (ERV) values of chicken slaughtered by the conventional method were significantly low than that of scientific method.  The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of conventional method was also higher than in scientific method. The meat obtained from conventionally processed birds showed an early incipient spoilage due to poor hygienic practices.

 

Key words: Broiler, Chicken quality, Conventional and scientific methods

 
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Research Article



HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL  ALTERATIONS  IN  GASTROINTESTINAL  DISORDERS  OF  SHEEP  WITH  PARASITIC  INFECTION


............................................................................233-238


A. N. TIWARI*, K. K. JAKHAR, B. L. JANGIR   AND V. SHARMA

 

Department of Veterinary Pathology

College of Veterinary Sciences

Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Hisar-125 004, Haryana, India

 

Present study investigated the haemato-biochemical changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep with parasitic infection. Study was conducted on 21 sheep (6 healthy and 15 diseased sheep/lambs). Haematological studies revealed significantly decreased values of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count. Erythrocytic indices of infected sheep revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia as there was no change in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) but significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Total leucocyte count revealed significant leucocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia and no significant change was observed in erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No haemoprotozoan parasites were detected in blood smear. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrhoeic sheep/lambs indicated significant decrease in values of total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, albumin: globulin ratio and glucose where as significant increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and increase in the level of total bilirubin. Parasitic examination of faecal sample of diarrhoeic sheep revealed infection of Strongyles, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp and Eimeria spp.


Key words: Sheep, Gastrointestinal, Haemato-biochemical, Parasitic infection

 
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Research Article



EFFECT  OF  USE  OF  DIFFERENT  LITTER  MATERIAL  COMBINATIONS  ON  GROWTH  PERFORMANCE  AND  ECONOMICS  OF  BROILER  PRODUCTION


.................................................................................239-248


SHRIKRISHNA S. KOLI*, M. V. DHUMAL, G. MISHRA, V. D. INGLE  AND R. S. KOLI

 

Department of Poultry Science

College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Parbhani

Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University

Nagpur-431 402, Maharashtra

 

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of use of different litter material combinations on growth performance and economics of broiler production. Four hundred twenty day old, commercial broiler chicks (VenCobb400 Strain) were divided into seven groups, with three replicates of 20 chicks in each. Water and feed were provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 42 days. The control A had  rice husk, while other treatment groups B, C, D, E, F and G having combinations such as soybean straw with groundnut hulls, wheat straw with soybean straw, saw dust with soybean straw, groundnut hulls with wheat straw, groundnut hulls with saw dust and saw dust with wheat straw, respectively. The diet was prepared as per BIS (2007) standards. There were highly significant effects of different types of litter material combinations of different treatment groups on weekly body weight, mortality, moisture percent, pH and cake formation score of litter material. The net profit obtained per bird after selling the birds @ Rs. 68/- per kg on live weight for treatment groups viz; A, B, C, D, E, F and G were Rs. 9.42, 18.86, 17.93, 16.28, 11.31, 16.84 and 15.97 respectively. Similarly the net profit per kg live weight fetched were Rs. 4.68, 8.84, 8.66, 7.81, 5.62, 7.89 and 7.71  for A, B, C, D, E, F and G groups, respectively. Therefore it is concluded that the mixture of soybean straw with groundnut hulls used for bedding material of broilers was more economical and profitable. It is recommended that the combination of soybean straw with groundnut hulls may be used as a superior bedding material with 50% combination on volume basis.


Keywords: Economics of broiler production, Growth performance, Litter material

 
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Research Article



EFFECT  OF  REFRIGERATING  KINETIC PARAMETERS  (RELATIVE  HUMIDITY  AND  AIR  VELOCITY)  ON PANGASIUS FILLET


................................................................................249-256


O. BISWAS*, N. A. TALWAR AND S. CHAUDHARY


Department of Fisheries Engineering

Faculty of Fishery Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Chakgaria, Kolkata- 700 094


The present study on the effect of different refrigerating kinetic parameters (relative humidity and air velocity) on pangasius fillet has been carried out to understand the refrigeration engineering aspects and their effects on fish quality. It has been revealed from the results that 90% RH and an air velocity of 2m/sec inside the chiller mostly retained the water holding capacity of fish fillets up to 14th day of refrigerated storage, whereas higher air velocity (90%) is required to retain the total collagen content intact. Fiber diameter and sarcomere length are most susceptible to high humidity and faster air speed inside the chiller.


Key words: Refrigerating kinetic, Pangasius fillet

 
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Research Article



ASSOCIATION  OF  RISK  FACTORS  WITH  THE PREVALENCE  OF  GASTROINTESTINAL  PARASITES  OF  DONKEYS (EQUUS ASINUS) FROM SOUTHERN  PUNJAB


................................................................................257-264


S. KAUR, H. SINGH, N. K. SINGH, N. KASHYAP AND S. S. RATH*

 

Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU)

Ludhiana, Punjab - 141 004


The coproscopic examination of 80 faecal samples of donkeys collected from southern Punjab districts revealed an overall prevalence rate of 41.25% (33/80) for gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence rates for strongyle, Parascaris equorum, mixed parasitic infections (Strongyloides westeri and strongyle) and amphistomes were 31.25, 6.25, 2.5 and 1.25%, respectively. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of positive faecal samples revealed mild to severe type of intensity for strongyle infection as indicated by eggs per gram ranging from 200-2200 (742±86.4). Regarding P. equorum infection, the eggs per gram value ranged from 150 to 250 (200±20.4) indicating mild type of infection. Coproculture studies revealed small strongyles (Cyathostomes) as predominant species (58.80%) of which 46.0% belonged to type A and 38.0% to type C, respectively. Amongst the large strongyles, highest proportion was recorded for Strongylus edentatus (17.6%) followed by S. vulgaris (15.4%) and least for S. equinus (8.2%). Age and sex were not associated with the prevalence of parasitic infections, while season, districts and farm types were significantly associated with the risk of gastrointestinal parasites (P<0.01).


Key words: Donkeys, Gastrointestinal parasites, Prevalence, Risk factors, Southern Punjab

 
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Short Communication



MAIDEN  REPORT  ON  SEROPREVALENCE OF  BLUETONGUE  IN  RUMINANTS OF  SIKKIM


....................................................................................265-270

 

B. RAMUDAMU, R. NONGDHAR, C. LODH AND S. N. JOARDAR*

 

Bluetongue Laboratory, Eastern Regional centre

All India Network Programme on Bluetongue

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037

 

The study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of bluetongue (BT) infection, if any, in the state of Sikkim, a north-eastern state of India. BT has not been reported in ruminants of Sikkim. Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy goats and cattle from different places of Sikkim. Anti-BT antibodies were assessed in serum samples using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Out of total 151 samples (cattle-134 and goat-17) tested, 8 cattle (5.97%) and 5 goats (29.41%) were found to possess anti-BT antibodies. This study revealed seroprevalence of bluetongue in goats and cattle of Sikkim for the first time, indicating presence of potent vector midges and circulating bluetongue virus (BTV) in the state.

 

Key words: Antibodies, Bluetongue, iELISA, Seroprevalence, Sikkim, Virus

 
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Short Communication



SUCCESSFUL  TREATMENT  OF  DYSTOCIA  DUE  TO PEROSOMUS  ELUMBIS  FETAL  MONSTER  IN  COW –  A CASE REPORT


...............................................................................271-274


MANJUSHA G. PATIL, M. V. INGAWALE, P. B. HASE* AND H. S. BIRADE


Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex

Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Akola, Maharashtra- 444 001, India

 

A seven years old non descript cow in fourth gestation was presented with the history of dystocia. Vaginal examination revealed fetus was in anterior longitudinal presentation, dorso-sacral position with head twisted towards upward. By mutation and forced traction a monster fetus was delivered through birth canal. The calf had flexure and ankylosis of hind limbs and shoulders along with vertebral and pelvic malformations suggestive of arthogryposis. The observations indicated that defective fetus was affected with perosomus elumbis.


Key words: Cow, Dystocia, Perosomus elumbis

 
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Short Communication



LEAD  III  ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC  EVALUATION OF  LARGE  WHITE  YORKSHIRE  PIGLETS  OF  DIFFERENT  AGE  GROUPS


...............................................................................275-278


T. JYOTIRANJAN, S. MOHAPATRA*, A.P.K. MAHAPATRA AND A.K. KUNDU

 

Department of Veterinary Physiology

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology

Bhubaneswar-751 003, Odisha


ECG of Large White Yorkshire piglets belonging to three different litters aged 2 months (group A), 4 months (group B) and 6 months (group C) were considered for the study. The study was carried out by taking five male piglets from each age group. Taking the ECG value of bipolar lead III into consideration the amplitude of P wave recorded positively in all age groups. The amplitude of P wave was measured to be highest in group C while that of group A and B recorded the same. The amplitude of QRS complex recorded negatively in three out of five cases in group B and C. Similarly two of the five cases recorded negative QRS complex in the age group A. An incidence of negative amplitude of T wave was observed in one out of five cases in group A. The R-R wave interval and heart rate values recorded no significant difference among the three age groups. This study laid down certain breed specific values of ECG parameters that could be referred by veterinary clinicians to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in Large White Yorkshire piglets.


Key words: Age, ECG, Lead III, Large White Yorkshire piglets

 
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Short Communication



POLYMYOSITIS  IN  A  DOBERMAN  BITCH –  A  CASE  REPORT


 ...............................................................................279-282


B. S. CHANDRA*, A. ABIRAMY@PRABAVATHY, P. VIJAYALAKSHMID. SELVI, K. RAJKUMAR AND B. SUBRAMANIAN


Department of Veterinary Medicine, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Campus

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research

Mettupalayam, Puducherry -605 009


A three year old Doberman bitch was presented with the history of weakness, inability to open the mouth, stiffness of limbs and weight loss. Clinical examination of the dog revealed dullness, sunken eyes, emaciation, muscular rigidity, bilateral atrophy of masseter muscles, trismus, congested conjunctival mucosa and swollen popliteal lymph nodes. Haemogram revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilia and high serum creatinine kinase levels. The dog was treated with immune-suppressive doses of prednisolone for 3 days along with supportive fluid therapy and later with cyclosporine. Gradual improvement was noticed during the course of treatment but was succumbed two months later due to relapse of the condition.


Key words: Polymyositis, Trismus

 
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Short Communication



HISTOMORPHOMETRIC  ASSESSMENT  OF  BASAL CELL  TUMOR  IN  A  DOG  –  A  CASE  REPORT


..............................................................................283-286



K. POORANI*, ASOK KUMAR M,  M. G. NAIR  AND R. KUMAR

 

College of Poultry Production and Management

Mathigiri, Hosur – 635 110, Tamil Nadu

 

An ulcerated fleshy growth was recorded in the right mouth commissure of a 10-year-old female mongrel dog. Histopathological examination revealed medusoid and ribbon shaped pattern, along with palisading arrangement of basal cells, arranged as fenestrating and anastomosing cords. These long, thin cords of basaloid cells were seen extended downward from the epidermis, along with moderate mitotic figures were suggestive of fibroepithelioma type of Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The Microscopic angiogenesis grading system (MAGS) score was 16.8, indicating lower degree of vascular proliferation in BCC. However, the distribution of mast cells showed mean of 1.5±0.7 in superficial dermis and 1.75±0.95 in deep dermis.  Thus the present study shows the degree of angiogenesis and mast cell distribution increase with the tumor malignancy.


Key words : Angiogenesis, Basal cell tumor, Fibroepithelioma, MAGS, Mast cell

 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  CORRECTION  OF  A  RARE  CASE  OF  BILATERAL  GRADE  IV  CONGENITAL  LATERAL  PATELLA  LUXATION  IN  A  SPITZ


................................................................................287-290


B. PRAKASHKUMAR*, M. S. S.V. PHANEENDRA AND N. DHANA LAKSHMI


Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex

College of Veterinary Science

Tirupati – 517 502


A seven month old Spitz dog was presented with a history of hind limb lameness and walking in crouched position since birth. Radiographic diagnosis revealed bilateral lateral luxation of patella with deformity of both stifles. Surgical correction of this rare case of congenital deformity was done on both limbs by the technique of trochlear wedge resection sulcoplasty (TWRS) and transposition of tibial tuberosity (TT) which showed normal weight bearing of good functional outcome.


Key words: Luxation, Spitz, Trochlear, Wedge resection sulcoplasty

 
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Short Communication




CHARACTERIZATION  AND  VIRULENCE  GENE  PROFILING  OF  PASTEURELLA  MULTOCIDA 
FROM  JAPANESE  QUAIL


..............................................................................291-294


N. CHACKO, S. SANKAR*, R. BALAN, L. LAL AND M. MINI

 

Veterinary Dispensary, Balanthode

Kasargode, Kerala, Pin- 671 532


The present case study documented isolation, characterization and virulence gene profiling of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida type A, isolated from a flock of Japanese quails that had exhibited high mortality in a private farm in Kerala. The exposure of the birds to continuous stress due to high temperature, transport and prolonged stay at check post may have predisposed the birds to the infection.


Key words: Japanese quail, Kerala, Pasteurella, Virulence genes

 
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Short Communication



FETAL  ABORTION  AND  MUMMIFICATION  DUE  TO UMBILICAL  CORD  TORSION  IN  A NON  DESCRIPTIVE  GOAT


..............................................................................295-298


R. SOBANAASREE, S. RAJA*, A. VIJAYARAJAN, N. BABU PRASATH, S. SATHESH KUMAR AND V. PRABAHARAN

 

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Veterinary College and Research Institute

Orathanadu - 614 625, Tamil Nadu


Umbilical cord accidents threaten fetal wellbeing and result into fetal jeopardy. A four and half month pregnant nulliparous non-descriptive goat was presented with continuous straining and lodging of fetuses in the birth canal. A mummified fetus was removed and found to have 720° torsion in the umbilical cord. Crown-rump length (CRL) revealed the age of the fetus that was dead and mummified with the presence of another fetus maintained by a corpus luteum. Abortion of the fetus has led to lysis of the corpus luteum leading to termination of pregnancy. The present case study narrates the successful delivery of one aborted fetus and one mummified fetus due to umbilical cord torsion.

 

Key words: Abortion, Crown-rump length, Torsion, Umbilical cord

 
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Short Communication



FETAL  MUMMIFICATION  IN  NON-DESCRIPT DOE:  A  CASE  REPORT


.................................................................................299-302


S. MARTHA*, M. RAJASHRI AND A. K. REDDY


Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics

P.V. Narsimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University

Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana-500 030


The present case study reports successful delivery of a mummified fetus by gentle traction with uneventful recovery of doe without any complications.

 

Keywords: Cervical dilation, Dystocia, Mummification, Quadruplet pregnancy

 
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Short Communication



MANAGEMENT  OF  POST  PARTUM  CERVICO – VAGINAL  PROLAPSE  IN  A  BUFFALO : A  CASE  REPORT


.............................................................................303-306

 

K. P. SINGH*, B. SINGH, P. SINGH, R.V. SINGH AND J. P. SINGH

 

Government Veterinary Hospital

Department of Animal Husbandry

Deoranian, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh- 243 203, India


An 8 years old buffalo of second parity was reported with post-partum cervico-vaginal prolapse. The mass was reduced and replaced to its normal position. To prevent the recurrence horizontal mattress suture was applied on the vulvar lip. The animal was treated with calcium magnesium borogluconate, oxytocin, 5 % dextrose normal saline (DNS), ceftriaxone, chlorpheniramine maleate, meloxicam, vitamins and minerals. After treatment the animal recovered uneventfully.


Key words: Buffalo, Cervico-vaginal prolapsed, Vulvar lip suture

 
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Short Communication



TWO  DIFFERENT  OBSTETRICAL  TECHNIQUES  TO MANAGE  DYSTOCIA  DUE  TO  FETAL  EMPHYSEMA IN BOVINE


...............................................................................307-310


R. K. GUPTA, V. SINGH, V. SACHAN*, M. K. YADAV, D. K. YADAV AND A. SAXENA

 

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

DUVASU, Mathura,UP - 281 001


Successful management  of dystocia  in a non-descript buffalo due to fetal emphysema and fetal mal-disposition, with fetotomy and dystocia in a cross breed cow due to  incomplete cervical dilation followed by death of fetus  resulted in to emphysema  with laparohysterotomy has been discussed.


Key words: Caesarean operation, Dystocia, Fetal emphysema, Fetotomy

 
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News



TIME PERIOD GENE CAN MAKE ANIMAL SLEEP OR WAKE CIRCADIAN BIOLOGY: NOBEL IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE


...............................................................................311-313


TAPAS GOSWAMI

 

Immunology Section

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

Izatnagar- 243 122, Bareilly (UP)

 
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