Indian Journal Of Animal Health

Published by

West Bengal Veterinary Association
NAAS SCORE - 4.08

Indian Journal of Animal Health
VOL. 55, NO.2 . DECEMBER, 2016
 

Review Article



BACTERIOPHAGES:  AN  ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE


.............................................................. 95 - 102


S. L. Moon And S. S. Khemalapure


Department of Veterinary Public Health

Bombay Veterinary College, Parel

Mumbai-12, Maharashtra, India


Bacteriophages are the largest known virus group and are the most numerous biological entities in the biosphere which can kill bacteria but are harmless to eukaryotic cells. The efficacy of bacteriophages to prevent and treat human and animal diseases has been shown in both laboratory and commercial field studies, without any adverse effects in the animals. The most serious challenge with the antibiotic is appearance and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria on which phage therapy seems to be promising alternative. This review will briefly describe the general characteristics of bacteriophages, difference between antibiotics and bacteriophages, therapeutic phage preparations, phage therapy and potential problems of phage therapy with their possible solutions.


Key words: Diseases, Antibiotics,  Resistance, Bacteriophages, Phage therapy

 
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Review Article



LEPTIN - A   PLEIOTROPIC  CYTOKINE  MOLECULE  


..................................................... 103 - 118


Sk. S. Alam , S. N. Joardar, A. K. Panigrahi

 

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37, Kshudiram Bose Sarani, PO – Belgachia

Kolkata–700 037, West Bengal


Leptin (16 kDa) being a pleiotropic molecule regulates food intake as well as metabolic and endocrine functions besides playing a regulatory role in immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Both leptin and its receptor share structural and functional similarities with interleukin-6 and interleukin-2 families of cytokines. Leptin influences energy homeostasis and regulates neuroendocrine function primarily in states of energy deficiency. As a cytokine, leptin also affects thymic homeostasis and, similar to other pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin promotes Th1 cell differentiation and cytokine production. This review focuses on the role of leptin in the modulation of the immune response, inflammation and hematopoiesis.


Key words: Adipokine, Cytokine, Immunity, Inflammation, Leptin

 
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Research Article



PREVALENCE  AND  ANTIMICROBIAL  RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA  COLI  ISOLATED  FROM  CAMEL MILK  IN  SOMALI  REGION,  ETHIOPIA


............................................ 119 - 128


I. M. Zuleka, M. S. Abebe , T. M. Awot , G. A. Belayneh , A. T. Tehetna , N. Kumar


College of Veterinary Medicine

Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Post Box.-1398


Escherichia coli is one of the food borne pathogens that results in major public health problems. The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of resistant bacteria and increases the risk of treatment failures. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate E. coli from raw camel milk samples and to determine the antibiogram pattern of E. coli isolates. A total of 288 milk samples were collected from selected district of Shinile zone, Somalia, Ethiopia. Collected samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and sub-cultured on Eosin Methylene agar. Several biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of isolates. Antibiogram pattern of E. coli to antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the disk diffusion method using eight antimicrobials. Results of the present study have revealed that out of the 288 samples tested, 30 (10.4%) were found to be infected with E. coli. Antibiogram pattern assessed revealed a higher resistance against amoxicillin (80%) and gentamicin (60%), followed by tetracycline (56.7%), and erythromycin (40.3%). Lesser percentage of resistance was observed for chloramphenicol (25.6%), kanamycin (20%), streptomycin (13.6%) and ciprofloxacin (10%). Furthermore, multidrug resistance was observed in 23.3% of the total isolates. Accordingly, results suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of E. coli strains originating from camel milk. The presence of multiple drug resistance indicates alarming situation for timely designing of control and prevention methods to reduce its prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in food animals.


Key words: Antimicrobial resistance, Camel-milk, E. coli, Isolation, Prevalence

 
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Research Article



EFFECT OF DIETARY  SUPPLEMENTATION  OF COMMERCIAL AQUACULTURE  PROBIOTIC CONSORTIA  AND  FISH  GUT ANTAGONISTIC  BACTERIA  ON  THE  GROWTH  AND DISEASE  RESISTANCE  OF ORNAMENTAL  FISH CARASSIUS  AURATUS AND  XIPHOPHORUS  HELLERI


....................................................... 129 - 136


T. Jawahar Abraham, S. Mondal And Ch. Surendra Babu


Department of Aquatic Animal Health

Faculty of Fishery Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

5 - Budherhat Road, Chakgaria, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal


Effects of dietary supplementation of commercial aquaculture probiotic consortia (PC feed) and a mixture of fish gut antagonistic bacteria, viz, Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. (LB feed) on the growth and disease resistance of ornamental fish Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus helleri were investigated. The commercial probiotic consortia at a level of 5g/kg feed had no effect on the growth of C. auratus. Rather, it reduced the wet weight gain of C. auratus compared to control (P<0.05). The PC feed had no significant effect on the total wet weight gain, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of X. helleri compared to control. On the other hand, in LB feed fed C. auratus the variations in growth parameters were statistically insignificant, except for FCR (P<0.05). While in X. helleri, there existed significant differences in the total wet weight gain and FCR of LB feed fed and control groups. Both PC and LB feed fed fish groups did not offer any significant protection (P>0.05) against Pseudomonas fluorescens 58C infection. However, marked differences in the fish exhibiting fin and tail rot were noticed between the probiotic fed and control groups.


Key words: Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus helleri, Probiotic, Lactobacillus sp, Bacillus

sp, Disease resistance

 
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Research Article



REARING  OF  CHRYSOMYIA  BEZZIANA AND CHRYSOMYIA  MEGACEPHALA IN  LABORATORY CONDITION


................................................................. 137 - 140


S. Baidya, R. Ranjan, M. K. Das, S. Pandit, C. Debnath, S. Pradhan, D. N. Panda4 And M. R. Panda


Department of Veterinary Parasitology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37 KB Sarani, Kolkata 700 037.

 

A great number of dipteran flies have been reported to produce myiasis in man and animals. The 1st instar Chrysomyia bezziana larvae were harvested by collecting the egg masses from the dry edges of a wounded calf and incubating these egg masses in petridishes at 37oC with provision of sufficient moisture. C. megacephala fly eggs were screened from other carrion breeding fly eggs by hatching the eggs upto mature larvae. From the pure bred fly species pure culture of different stages of larvae collected from both the C. bezziana and C. megacephala fly.


Key Words: Chrysomyia bezziana, Chrysomyia megacephala, Egg, Larvae

 
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Research Article



SUPPLEMENTATION  OF  HERBAL  OESTRUS  INDUCER AND  MINERAL  MIXTURE  COMBINATIONS ON  HAEMATO- BIOCHEMICAL  PROFILE OF  CROSSBRED  COWS


............................................................. 141 - 148


K. Ray, P. Biswas, U. Banerjee, S. Basu And B. Sarkar

 

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and  Obstetrics

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37 K B Sarani, Belgachia, Kolkata-700 037

 

Post partum anoestrus (PPA) of dairy cattle is a major concern throughout the globe. The therapeutic management of PPA has been observed to be elusive due to involvement of several interacting factors, including deficiency of critical nutrients. Different tropical plants containing secondary compounds have been found to be quite effective in inducing oestrus in PPA cows. There is a paucity of information regarding their therapeutic schedule when used in combination with supplemental critical minerals in anoestrus cows. The present study was designed with an attempt to explore the effects of a new herbal oestrus inducer and mineral mixture (in combination) in inducing oestrus in crossbred (HF x Jersey) cows with PPA and consequent changes in blood biochemical profile. All the cows were supplemented with 40 ml liquid herbal oestrus inducer daily for 4 consecutive days along with 40 gm area specific mineral mixture/day for consecutive 15 days for augmentation of oestrus. Out of total thirty two treated animals, nineteen animals expressed the signs of ocestrus within 29 days. Post-treatment analysis of haematological, biochemical, enzymatic and hormonal profile established a marked elevation (P<0.05) of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, glucose, total protein, ALP, LDH and oestradiol-17b. Serum mineral content (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron) was also significantly (P<0.05) increased in the supplemented animals. The findings of the present study imply that strategic use of tropical plant feed additives in definite combination with minerals may ameliorate many PPA problems.


Key words: Post partum anoestrus, Herbal feed additives, Area specific mineral mixture, Serum profile

 
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Research Article



PHENOTYPIC  CHARACTERIZATION  OF  DIFFERENT COLOUR  VARIANTS  OF  ENDANGERED  SIRI  CATTLE IN  WEST BENGAL  AND  SIKKIM


................................................................... 149 - 156


P. K. Bera, D. Saha, S. K. Ghosh and S. Das

 

Department of Biotechnology

University of North Bengal

Raja Rammohunpur

Dist.- Darjeeling, West Bengal, 734 013

 

The present investigation was carried out on Siri cattle in its natural ecology with a focus on breed description to facilitate selection for better performance as well as conservation of the breed.  It is revealed from the study that the majority of Siri cattle were black with white patches (64.73%) followed by black (15.8%), brown with white patches (9.89%) and brown (9.56%). The average morphometric measurements in male and female Siri cattle were 138.98 ± 0.22 and 122.29 ± 0.14 cm for withers height, 176.82 ± 0.46 and 154.36 ± 0.51 cm for heart girth, 138.40 ± 0.79 and 103.95 ± 0.63 cm for body length, 43.83 ± 0.17 and 38.32 ± 1.40 cm for face length, 47.38±0.20 and 31.17 ± 0.12 cm for neck length, 80.47 ± 0.14 and 69.66 ± 0.09 cm for neck girth, 19.62 ± 0.13 and 19.05 ± 0.97 cm for ear length respectively. Average age at first calving, average calving interval, average lactation length, average daily milk yield and peak milk yield per day were 51.51±0.81 months, 474.69±4.70 days, 239.00±2.04 days, 2.13±0.05kg and 3.08±0.05kg, respectively. Overall testicular circumference was 28.03±0.13 cm in male. In female teat length was 3.66±0.06 cm. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there was no significant variation in body conformation, physical characters, reproductive and productive performances among the four groups of colour variant Siri cattle.


Key words: Siri cattle, Physical characteristics, Productive performance, Reproductive Performances

 
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Short Communication



RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  BODYWEIGHT  WITH LINEAR  BODY  MEASUREMENT  IN  POST WEANING STALL  FED  OSMANABADI  KIDS  UNDER  KATCHA HOUSING  SYSTEM


....................................................................... 157 -160


R. Panda and P.P.Ghorpade

 

Department of Livestock Production Management

Bombay Veterinary College

Mumbai, Maharashtra-400 012

 

The aim of study was to see relationship of body weight with linear body measurement in Osmanabadi kids. A total of 50 female Osmanabadi goats were randomly selected from the farm after weaning and the observations were made for the age groups of 4-6 months and 7-12 months. It was observed that as age of goats increases, the mean body weight increases as well. Highly positive correlation was observed between mean body weight and mean body length and also in between height at withers and heart girth . Positive correlation among the linear body measurements were also found.


Key words : Body measurements,  Body length, Height at withers, Heart girth, Osmanabadi kids

 
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Short Communication



SEROPREVALENCE  OF  BLUETONGUE  IN  RUMINANTS  OF TRIPURA


................................................................... 161 - 166


S. N. Joardar, A. Halder, C. Lodh, A. Mahanti and A. Barui

 

Collaborating centre

All India Network Programme on Bluetongue

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Belgachia, Kolkata-700 037,WB


The study was undertaken to assess presence of bluetongue (BT) infection, if any, in the state of Tripura, a north-eastern state of India where BT incidence/outbreak has not been reported in ruminant animals. Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy goats and cattle from different areas of Western Tripura. Anti-BT antibodies were detected in sera using Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Out of total 195 samples (goat- 136 and cattle- 59) collected and tested, 59 goats (43.88%) and 25 cattle (42.37%) were found to possess anti-BT antibodies. This study revealed seroprevalence of bluetongue in goats and cattle of Tripura in descending order. The present paper reports sero-prevalence status of bluetongue in Tripura, for the first time, indicating presence of BT infection in the state.


Key words: Antibodies, Bluetongue, iELISA, Serum, Tripura.

 
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Short Communication



CLINICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF CONJUNCTIVITIS IN DOG :  A  CASE  STUDY


........................................................... 167 - 168


K. Kumar, K. Kumari, P. K. Praveen and S. Ganguly

 

Krishi Vigyan Kendra

Village and PO. Chainpura via Janakpur Road

Dist.- Sitamarhi-843 320, Bihar


The present clinical case report documents the successful therapeutic management of canine conjunctivitis with the application of broad spectrum antibiotic  and multivitamin preparations.


Key words: Conjunctivitis, Clinical management, Dog

 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF  NEUROFIBROMATOID MASS  ON  RIGHT  WING  OF  PARROT


.................................................................. 169 - 172


V. Lalzawmliana, V. Kumar, B. Tripathy, S. K. Nandi, P. Mukherjee and A. K. Maji


Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Kolkata- 700 037


This case report represents a clinical study of 4 years of age Indian ring-necked parakeet (parrot)  presented in Department of Surgery & Radiology, WBUAFS, Kolkata with the history of hard mass caused by abnormal growth of tissue on ventral aspect of right wing. It was successfully treated with standard surgical protocol and was diagnosed as neurofibromatoid mass.


Key words: Anaesthetise, Indian ring-necked parakeet (parrot), Neurofibromatoid mass, Surgery

 
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Short Communication




CLINICO-THERAPEUTIC  MANAGEMENT  OF RHINITIS  IN  COWS:  A  CASE  STUDY


................................................................... 173 -176


K. KUMAR, K. KUMARI, P. K. PRAVEEN and S. GANGULY

 

Krishi Vigyan Kendra

Village and PO. Chainpura via Janakpur Road

Dist.- Sitamarhi,- 843 320, Bihar


The present case report documents the occurrence of clinical case of rhinitis in five cows. The animals were clinically affected with the symptoms of bilateral nasal and ocular discharge and inflammation of nasal mucosa. Treatment was followed up with the administration of antibiotic, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory preparations. The successful clinical recovery was reported after three days of therapeutic management.


Key words: Cows, Rhinitis, Treatment

 
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Letter to the Editor



From

Dr. Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar MD 

Dr. Parag Himmatrao Bawaskar MD

Dr. Pramodinin Himmatrao Bawaskar MBBS


Bawaskar Hospital and Clinical Research Center

Mahad Raigad

Maharashtra, India 402301


Sir,

We have an experience of diagnostic signs and symptoms of cardiac failure in Dog. We posses one ten years old black coloured Labrador dog .....

 
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