Indian Journal Of Animal Health

Published by

West Bengal Veterinary Association
NAAS SCORE - 4.08

Indian Journal of Animal Health
VOL. 55, NO.1 . JUNE, 2016
 

Review Article



SOMATIC  CELL  CLONING  TECHNIQUE  FOR PRODUCTION  OF  CLONED  ANIMALS  AND  ITS APPLICATION - A  REVIEW


........................................................................... 1 - 20


D. Malakar*, Y. S. Akshey, A. K. De And R. Dutta


Animal Biotechnology Centre

National Dairy Research Institute

Karnal-132 001, India


Animal biotechnology is a very important sector in modern biotechnology. One of the important targets of animal biotechnology is to increase the quality and quantity of animals and animal products using different assisted reproductive technologies like somatic cell nuclear transfer, stem cell technology and transgenic animal production. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has tremendous applications in basic biological research, species conservation, medicine and agriculture. The drawback of traditional SCNT is that its efficiency is very low (1-5 %) due to some biological & technical reasons. Oocyte enucleation is very important and pain staking step in traditional nuclear transfer technique. Moreover, this technique requires very expensive equipments like micromanipulator and other accessory tools, skilled personnel and requires more time to perform. It decreases about 15-39 % cytoplasmic volume of oocyte which results in cloning syndrome or abnormalities in cloned animals. Hand-made cloning (HMC) is a new technique, simple to perform and is advantageous over traditional nuclear transfer technique. In this method, 100% cytoplasmic volume of oocyte can be maintained, which helps in proper reprogramming of donor cell nuclei and increases cloning efficiency. Hand-made cloning technique is elaborately discussed here for improving cloning efficiency in animals.

Key words:  Embryos, Hand-made cloning, Oocytes, SCNT
 
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Review Article



BOVINE  HERPES  VIRUS-1  AND  ITS  INFECTION IN  INDIA - A  REVIEW


..........................................................................21 - 40


A. Chatterjee, S. Bakshi, S. N. Sarkar, J. Mitra And S. Chowdhury

 

Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals

37, Belgachia Road, Kolkata – 700 037

West Bengal


This review article summarizes recent information on the molecular biology of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). This may provide a better understanding of BoHV-1 latency. DNA fingerprinting of isolates allow tracing diseases and gaining a picture of the molecular epizootiology. The major immunogenic proteins, especially a 74 Kd glycoprotein which gives rise to neutralizing antibodies, have been defined as those structural components being involved in cross-reactions with the goat herpesvirus (BoHV-6) and being of importance for diagnostic assays. Besides the known clinical appearance of BoHV-1 infections, expressing them mainly as respiratory or genital infections, the immune response is discussed and its value outlined for diagnostics and epizootiology. In conclusion, recommendations are given to control or eradicate BoHV-1 infections.


Key words: Bovine herpes virus, Cattle diseases, Immunity, Latent infection, Viral diseases

 
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Research Article



EFFECT  OF  DIFFERENT  SERUM  CONCENTRATIONS  ON GROWTH  AND  STORAGE  OF  CAPRINE  BONE  MARROW MESENCHYMAL  STEM  CELLS


......................................................................... 41 - 48


M. Kumar*, Yasotha T, B. C. Das And S. Bag

 

Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science

Institute of Agricultural Sciences

Banaras Hindu University

Varanasi, U.P. 221 005

 

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is the major stem cells for cell therapy, have been used in the clinical trials. In the present investigation we have studied the effects of different serum concentration viz. 10%, 15% and 20% on the cells growth and its performance. Equal numbers of MSCs were cultured in the media having different concentration of serum and checked for the attachment and multiplications. At 70-80% of confluency cells were separated with the help of trypsin and counted separately using hemocytometer. At the end of experiment total numbers of cells were calculated separately and statistical analysis was done. The results suggested that 15% serum supplementation having better morphology and growth compared to 10% and 20% serum supplementation. Cultured MSCs were cryopreserved at -196oC by vitrification method and the cells were thawed and re-cultured after storage for sufficient period (2-3 months). After that cells were checked for all the characteristic of MSCs and found normal. So we can say that cells can be easily cryopreserved at -196oC in DMSO and can be used in future when ever required.

 

Key Words: Mesenchymal stem cells, Caprine, Serum concentration, Cryofreezing

 
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Research Article



EFFECTS OF PLANT EXTRACTS RICH IN TANNINS, SAPONINS AND ESSENTIAL OILS ON RUMEN FERMENTATION AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS IN VITRO


............................................................................49 - 60


G. P. Mandal, A. Roy And A. K. Patra

 

Department of Animal Nutrition

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37 K.B. Sarani, Belgachia, Kolkata-700 037, India

 

The objective of this study was to investigate different plan extracts rich plant bioactives on rumen fermentation and concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) in rumen fluid. Three tannin-rich leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus glomerata; three saponin-rich fruits of Spindus mukorossis, Acacia concinna, Acacia auriculiformis; and three essential oils-rich plant parts, i.e., buds of Syzygium aromaticum, bulbs of  Allium sativum, seeds of Coriandum sativum extracted in two solvents (water and 75% ethanol) were tested at two dose levels (0.5 and 1.0 mL) for each category of plant extracts (tannins, saponins and essential oils (EO)) separately in a 4 (treatments) × 2 (dose levels) × 2 (solvents) factorial arrangement. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100-mL conical flasks containing 50 mL of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 4% sunflower oil. Inclusion of all three tannin-rich plant extracts decreased in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD). Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the extract of A. heterophyllus at 1.0 mL. All the three tannin-rich plant extracts decreased (P<0.05) NH3-N concentration at 1.0 mL level. A. heterophyllus at 0.5 and 1.0 mL levels and F. benghalensis and F. glomerata at 1.0 mL level significantly (P<0.05) reduced protozoal count. The concentrations of VA in rumen fluid were increased (P<0.05) by the extracts of A. heterophyllus. None of the tannin-rich plant extracts changed the CLA concentration in culture media compared with control. Among the saponin rich extracts, inclusion of A. concinna at 1.0 mL level significantly (P<0.05) reduced IVDMD. TVFA concentrations were not affected by the saponin-rich plant extracts. A. concinna and S. mukorossis at 0.5 and 1.0 mL levels and A. auriculiformis at 1.0 mL level reduced (P<0.05) NH3-N concentration. The protozoal count was decreased by the extract of A. concinna and S. mukorossis at 1.0 mL level. Saponin extracts did not influence the VA concentration, but the CLA concentration significantly (P<0.05) increased owing to addition of water extract of A. concinna only.  The EO extracts did not influence (P>0.05) rumen fermentation, VA and CLA concentration. Protozoa counts linearly decreased with increasing doses of ethanol extract of S. aromaticum. In conclusion, the tannin-rich water extract of A. heterophyllus and saponin-rich water extract of A. concinna have potential to increase CLA and VA concentrations in rumen fluid, which consequently may enrich the CLA content in milk and meat.


Key words: Conjugated linoleic acid, Rumen fermentation, Plant bioactive compound, Goat

 
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Research Article



EFFICACY  OF  INTRAUTERINE  INFUSION  OF  DIFFERENT ANTIMICROBIAL  AGENTS  ON  CONCEPTION  RATE  OF REPEAT  BREEDER  DAIRY  CROSS  BRED  COWS


.......................................................................... 61 - 64


N. S. Resum And H. Singh

 

Veterinary Officer

Military Farm, Satwari

Jammu (J&K), 180 003

 

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different intrauterine agents on conception rates of repeat breeder cows. Forty repeat breeder cows having slightly turbid vaginal discharge were taken in the present investigation and were randomly divided into four treatment groups with 10 animals in each group. In group I, 50 ml of 1% lugol’s iodine, in group II, 8 ml enrofloxacin diluted with 12 ml of normal saline solution, in group III, Cephalexin @ 4 gm diluted with 60 ml distilled water and in group IV, levofloxacin + ornidazole + -tocopherol combination @ 60 ml was infused intrauterine for 3 consecutive days. After treatment the cows were inseminated artificially using frozen thawed semen of acceptable quality. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by per rectal palpation at 60 days post insemination. The conception rates were 30.00%, 40.00%, 60.00% and 60.00% for group I, II, III and IV respectively.


Key words: Cows, Repeat breeder, Intrauterine

 
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Research Article



EFFECT  OF  SUMMER  STRESS  ON  SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL,  ENZYMATIC  AND  HORMONAL PARAMETERS  OF  RHODE  ISLAND  RED  BIRDS REARED AT  BACKYARD  IN  DIFFERENT  AGRO-CLIMATIC  ZONES  OF  WEST  BENGAL


........................................................................... 65 -72


S.J. Gogoi, P.K. Das, S.Maity, G.D.V. Pandiyan, J. Mukherjee, D. Banerjee, K. Das And P. R. Ghosh

 

Department of Veterinary Physiology

West Bengal University of Animal and  Fishery Sciences

Kolkata-700 037, West Bengal


Rural poultry rearing contributes significantly to the exchequer of rural mass in developing countries especially of Asian and African continent including India in terms of egg and meat for its low input and better adaptability. In the changing scenario of global climate, the proper selection and village poultry production system draws attention across the country. Here, an attempt is undertaken to mitigate the gap in knowledge of physiological adaptability in five agro-climatic zones of West Bengal during summer season. Body weight and some hematological, enzymatic and hormonal profiles in the different agro climatic zones are assessed during summer and it is found that highest body weight gain and protein intake was found at Coastal zone. No significant variations were found between different zones in the level of hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), whereas serum aspertate transaminase (AST) concentrations varied significantly among different zones. The results indicated potential adaptability of RIR birds reared in backyard at all agro-climatic zones of West Bengal.

 

Key words : Summer stress, Physiological parameters, Backyard RIR, AST, ALT, T3/T4

 
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Research Article



IDENTIFICATION  OF  STROMELYSIN-3  (MMP-11)  GENE  EXPRESSION  IN  DIFFERENT  MAMMARY  TUMORS  OF  DOG

........................................................................... 73 - 76


S. Sahoo And M. Kataria


FNBP division

Central Institute of Fisheries Education

Panch Marg, Off Yari Road Campus

Versova, Andheri(W),Mumbai-400 061, India


Dog mammary tumours usually invade to other internal organs. Stromelysin-3, a matrix metalloproteinase plays an important role in metastasis and is over expressed in human breast carcinomas. Thus to study stromelysin-3 mRNA expression in dog, mammary tumour tissues were used for Reverse transcriptase -PCR analysis. The PCR product was further confirmed by nested PCR. A product of 1466bp in PCR and 470bp in nested PCR was observed as expected. The cDNA prepared from five malignant tumour cases showed amplification of stromelysin-3 gene. But a case of benign adenoma did not show any appreciable amplification of the gene.


Key words: Matrix metalloproteinase, Metastasis, Stromelysin-3, Reverse transcriptase-PCR

 
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Research Article



POLYMORPHISM  AND  NUCLEOTIDE  SEQUENCING  OF BMP-15  GENE  IN  AN  ORGANISED  HERD  OF  GAROLE SHEEP  (OVIS  ARIES)

........................................................................... 77 - 86


Raj Kumar, S. Taraphder*, A. K. Sahoo, P. K. Senapati, R. Paul, M. Roy, U. Sarkar, D. Raja, I. Samanta And  S. Baidya

 

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Belgachia, Kolkata-700 037, West Bengal, India


The present study was carried out on thirty two ewes of Garole sheep with an aim to explore the DNA polymorphism of exon-2 of BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein-15) gene using PCR-RFLP and Nucleotide sequencing technique. The obtained 141 bp PCR products were digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. This resulted in similar banding pattern with 110 and 31 bp length on 2.5 percent agarose gel.  The basic finding of the current study was the absence of polymorphism at the exon-2 of BMP-15 gene in Garole sheep under study. The frequencies of wild genotype (++) and wild allele (+) of exon-2 of BMP-15 gene in 32 randomly selected Garole ewes were 1.00. Nucleotide sequence of PCR product (141 nt) revealed that the C nucleotide has not changed to T at this locus (C-T) for exon-2 of BMP-15 gene in all experimental animals. The BLAST analysis of present study showed 99-100 percent homology between species for the obtained sequence of exon-2 of BMP-15 gene of Garole sheep. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of different species revealed that Garole sheep form a cluster with Lohi and Bolochi sheep breed, Beetal, Boer and Markhoz goat breed indicating their closeness in the evolutionary time scale.


Key words: BMP gene, PCR-RFLP, BLAST, Nucleotide, Sheep, Garole

 
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Short Communication



A RETROSPECTIVE  STUDY  ON  THE  ABORTION  AND STILLBIRTH  IN  SHEEP  AT  VARIOUS  ORGANISED FARMS  IN  KASHMIR  VALLEY

.......................................................................... 87 - 88


M. A. Rafee And Y. F. Wani


Veterinary Assistant Surgeon

Department of Animal Husbandy

Govt. of Jammu and Kasmir, Srinagar- 192 212, India


The present study was conducted to determine the abortion and stillbirth rates at seven organised sheep farms of Kashmir valley. The overall prenatal lamb loss due to abortion and still birth rates were 2.69% and 2.6%, respectively. The abortion rate was minimum at Goabal and Kewa (nil) farms and highest at the farm of Poshinar (8.98%). Similarly, stillbirth rate was lowest at the farm of Kralpathri (1.35%) and highest at the farm of Poshinar (4.49%). The differences were significant among few farms.


Key words: Sheep, Abortion rate, Stillbirth rate, Kashmir valley

 
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Short Communication



SURGICAL  MANAGEMENT  OF FAECOLITH   IN  A  CAT

.......................................................................... 89 - 90

 

C. Saha, P. Mukherjee,  D. Ghosh And S. K. Nandi

 

Department of Veterinary Surgery and  Radiology

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

37, K.B.Sarani, Kolkata- 700 037

 

 

An 11 years old tom cat was presented with the history of obstipation and diagnosed as impaction of the intestine with faecolith on the basis of clinical findings and radiographic studies. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed it a large intestinal impaction with faecolith. The article represents successful surgical management of faecolith in a tom cat.


Key words : Faecolith, Intestinal impaction, Megacolon, Surgery, Cat

 
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Short Communication



HYDRALLANTOIS  IN  A  CROSS  BRED  HEIFER - A  CASE  REPORT

........................................................................... 91 - 94


N. S. Resum, Bhavna, A. Khajuria And P. Kour

 

Veterinary Officer

Military Dairy Farm, Satwari

Jammu and Kashmir-180 003, India

 

Hydrallantois in a 3yr old cross bred heifer was diagnosed based on sudden bilateral abdominal enlargement and by findings of per rectal and vaginal examination. Caesarean section was performed and about 140 litres of allantoic fluid was drained out and a live foetus was delievered.


Key words: Caesarean, Heifer, Hydrallantois

 
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